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From revolution to reform

than outright criticism and its slide continued. In 1983–84 it was even rivalled as a protest party by the FN. By 1984, the Party had decided that criticism of the Socialists from outside the coalition was the best strategy and it left government. Communist hostility to the Socialists was unremitting from then until 1994. However, in terms of relevance, the PCF was close to slipping out of the party system (Sartori, 1976: 122–3). Yet, because the Party was hostile to the ‘reformist’ Socialist Party, and clung to the old certainties of state socialism, it was unable

in The French party system

‘conjuncture’ mean that these ideas have proved particularly attractive to a left that is struggling to redefine its project after the collapse of state socialism and the declining appeal of a top-down, bureaucratic corporatism and welfarism, and to respond to widespread concerns about the deteriorating social fabric and ‘hollowed-out’ politics of the contemporary market societies that neo-liberalism is creating. Republican ideas seem to promise a route back to the values of freedom and democracy that the twentieth-century left seemed too often to lose touch with, at the

in In search of social democracy

speaking the Marxian language of exploitative capitalist relations, also dismiss the notion of a meaningful Third Way. Of course, social democracy can itself lay claim to being the original Third Way; between state socialism and laissez-faire capitalism. The numerous individuals and groups that remain true to the European social democratic heritage are thus understandably put out

in The Third Way and beyond
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of socialism. Both are critical of capitalist society and both advocate radical and revolutionary change in society. Here we discuss the main features of each movement and the degree of success they have had in improving society. Marxism as a state ideology is studied, as well as anarchism’s critique of both capitalism and state socialism. 13 Fascism Fascism is a reaction to liberalism and socialism, and

in Understanding political ideas and movements

socialization of the ‘commanding heights of the economy’ through creating publics works, enacting taxes that could deliver a thorough redistribution of wealth and the nationalization of industries (LW9: 289–90). However, Dewey envisioned a socialized economy that was not simply a form of state socialism. A socialized economy was to provide the platform that would facilitate creative democracy through the practice of social intelligence. This move for economic freedom was thus geared towards securing the cultural freedom needed to perpetuate social intelligence (LW11: 254

in John Dewey

the public sector could become, as it were, a ‘community of fate’ 15 for these outsiders, in which the regimes imposed by state officials would resemble the pre-war Poor Law, or (ironically) the conditions under state socialism, with compulsory labour as a condition for benefits, and little freedom for those receiving services. So, a possible vision of a re-feudalised mid-twenty-first-century society

in Political concepts
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and state institutions. Socialism of the Marxist strain was connected with the communist states of Eastern Europe, the USSR and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). It stressed egalitarian values more than individual freedom. State power was used to strengthen these values as a stage towards the achievement of communism. All too often state socialism tended to stress the ‘state’, rather than ‘socialism

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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supply these needs by the collective action of institutions as, in itself, a threat to freedom. Some anarchists of Christian inspiration, such as Tolstoy, argue from the premise of the equality of man before God. Economic life One point on which all shades of anarchist thought are united is the rejection of ‘state socialism’, or the command economy , on the old Soviet model

in Understanding political ideas and movements