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views of John Stuart Mill and Isaiah Berlin on ‘negative’ and ‘positive’ freedom. Then we focus on the central issue of freedom and the state, concentrating on three major areas of dispute: conscientious objection, state acquisition of private property, civil disobedience and terrorism. We end with some observations on the cultural environment conducive to freedom and reflect on the problems of freedom

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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unequivocal sense. Justice belonged entirely to one side and injustice to the other. In the mind of the President, it seems, this is what a just war entails. Many would agree with him. In the current ‘war against terrorism’, President George W. Bush appears to share his father’s (and, ironically, Osama bin Laden’s) absolutist view. This is a war dubbed immodestly (but, as an indicator of underlying moral assumptions, revealingly

in Political concepts
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe

more – took the lead. By exercising its right of self-defence, it built a varied coalition in support of that right and has sought to develop a strategy to defeat terrorism with a global reach. A new strategic era has thus dawned. The US has a newly defined enemy, which is neither the old Soviet Union nor a, potentially, resurgent China, but international terrorism and terrorist sponsored states.47 The pursuit and defeat of these enemies has become the overarching goal of US President G. W. Bush and his administration. It has, therefore, become a defining feature of

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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permanent war with other great powers and within the empire. The UK state was a very effective tool for the potential military power of the British nations. The recent conflicts in the Falklands (1982) and the Gulf (1990–91), and the ‘war against terrorism’ in Afghanistan and elsewhere, may well strengthen the British sense of national identity. England The close identification of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
The evolving European security architecture

other risks of a wider nature, including uncontrolled population mass movement, international terrorism, sabotage, international organised crime and the disruption of the flow of vital resources. Moreover, para. 20 indicates that NATO security remains subject to a wide variety of both military as well as non-military risks, which are multidirectional in nature and often difficult to predict. Such risks include uncertainty and instability in an around the Euro-Atlantic area, and the possibility of regional crises at its periphery, which could, para. 20 stresses, evolve

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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the real world except perhaps as an ideal of what democratic politics is about. It assumes that politics cannot function except in a liberal democratic context. It thus excludes not only dictatorships and other autocracies but also even the political life of actual democracies where strikes, pressures of all kinds, even perhaps including terrorism, influence events as much as dispassionate dialogues. It is difficult, for instance, to

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Parliament voted to introduce a ban on hunting with dogs. The Scottish decision will have an impact on the anti-hunting campaign in England and Wales. Animal rights campaigning uses every form of political action, from protesting and attempting to lobby government to terrorism. Some animal rights campaigners have sought to work within organisations such as the National Trust and the RSPCA to bring about change

in Understanding political ideas and movements

not need to look very hard for examples of this phenomenon. Beyond political community Here is another way of putting it: citizens may not have that much interest in collective self-governance in states. The security imperative that was once so central to state function (providing a safe space against hostile competitor states) has dissipated. Terrorism creates security needs, but the battle lines do not coincide with

in Democratic inclusion
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Partial offsets and unfinished business

. Six new articles (Arts K1, K2, K3, K4, K7, K10) are inserted in the Title in order to ‘provide citizens of the Union with a high level of safety within an area of Freedom, Security and Justice’. Art. K1 stipulates that, in order The Amsterdam reforms 91 to attain the above objectives, measures should be introduced for the prevention and combating of organised crime, terrorism, arms- and drug-trafficking, offences against children, corruption and fraud. For these reasons, closer cooperation between judicial authorities, police forces, customs authorities and other

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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fascism and communism during the twentieth century and triumphed, but anti-democratic and irrational forces could reappear to challenge them and, perhaps, win. There is evidence of the growth of such forces in Europe: fascism, nationalism, terrorism, religious fundamentalism, and extremism in the cause of animal rights and environmentalism. At present they are on the fringes of politics. However, levels of intolerance of

in Understanding political ideas and movements