Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

Capitalism ( London and New York : Verso . Original edition , 1999 ). BOND ( 2003 ), Joint statement by members of the International Global Security and Development Network on the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), ‘A Development Co-operations Lens on Terrorism Prevention: Key Entry Points for Action’ ( London : British Overseas NGOs for Development (BOND) ). Braidotti , R. ( 2013 ), The Posthuman ( Cambridge : Polity Press ). Brenner , R. ( 2006

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

and money laundering and thus currently contribute to the transformation of war economies through the tracking and investigation of illegal financial transactions (Winer, 2005; Winer and Roule, 2003). Multiple international security bodies are also involved in the tracking and investigation of the illicit side of war economies. Many of these bodies have been set up to deal specifically with the global drug trade, transnational organised crime or global terrorism, but due to the connections between these activities and many war economies, have been or could

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

: ‘my government let me stay for two years and then they said they wanted me home and I said I can’t because I’m in the middle of a terrorism trial, I want to finish it, and they said, fine, but you’re going to have to give up your job [back home], so I had to quit’ (I48). The impact of forced or voluntary short-term commitments is threefold. First is the problem of recruitment. It is already difficult to get qualified judges and lawyers to leave their homes, families and jobs to come to a conflictaffected zone. Such difficulties are made worse by expecting

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

global governance missionaries’ (Hozic, 2006: 244). Customs is also seen as a way of preventing the spread of organised crime to Western Europe (Bruggman, 2001) and is further seen as another check against the threat of terrorism in the post-9/11 world (Chaflin, 2006; Heyman, 2004; Megoran, Raballand and Bouyjou, 2005; Walsh, 2006). However, customs assistance has not always had the desired effect and besides not bringing the expected economic benefits (Bartlett and Samardzˇija, 2000), the agenda of installing a modern customs agency based on neo-liberal economic

in Building a peace economy?
Author: Kerry Longhurst

Mobilising the concept of strategic culture, this study develops a framework for understanding developments in German security policy between 1990 and 2003. Germany's contemporary security policies are characterised by a peculiar mix of continuity and change. From abstention in the first Gulf war, to early peacekeeping missions in Bosnia in the early 1990s and a full combat role in Kosovo in 1999, the pace of change in German security policy since the end of the Cold War has been breathtaking. The extent of this change has recently, however, been questioned, as seen most vividly in Berlin's response to ‘9/11’ and its subsequent stalwart opposition to the US-led war on terrorism in Iraq in 2003. Beginning with a consideration of the notion of strategic culture, the study refines and adapts the concept to the case of Germany through a consideration of aspects of the rearmament of West Germany. It then critically evaluates the transformation of the role of the Bundeswehr up to and including the war on terrorism, together with Germany's troubled efforts to enact defence reforms, as well as the complex politics surrounding the policy of conscription. By focusing on both the ‘domestics’ of security policy decision making as well as the changing and often contradictory expectations of Germany's allies, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the role played by Germany's particular strategic culture in shaping policy choices. It concludes by pointing to the vibrancy of Germany's strategic culture.

Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

views of John Stuart Mill and Isaiah Berlin on ‘negative’ and ‘positive’ freedom. Then we focus on the central issue of freedom and the state, concentrating on three major areas of dispute: conscientious objection, state acquisition of private property, civil disobedience and terrorism. We end with some observations on the cultural environment conducive to freedom and reflect on the problems of freedom

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations
Ami Pedahzur

THE DEMOCRATIC POLITY’S struggle against manifestations of extra-parliamentary extremism and political violence is accompanied by a similar and perhaps even more acute quandary than its contest with political parties. In this struggle the government possesses the means to substantially restrict the freedom of expression and association of its citizens, consequently harming a number of their democratic rights. However, in its struggle against extremism, violence and, at times, even terrorism, the democracy is sometimes impelled to employ

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

From Afghanistan to Iraq
Kerry Longhurst

. One of the many effects of that day was the emergence of a fundamental difference between US and German perspectives regarding the use of force and how best to combat the sources of global terrorism. The transformation that US foreign policy underwent after (and arguably even before) September 11 brought into focus the peculiarities and continuities present within German security thinking. The Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 80 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 80 Germany and the use of force next section discusses at some length the evolution of US

in Germany and the use of force
From the ‘militant’ to an ‘immunised’ route?
Ami Pedahzur

, in the direction of the ‘immunised’ pole by the very fact that, for the first time, the objective and powers of the Shabak, as well as the means of accounting for its actions, will now be more clearly defined. 2 Another step in the same direction can be detected in the Ministry of Justice’s repeated efforts to address state policy regarding the ‘incitement to violence’ offence and confine it to a legal framework, thus replacing the Ordinance for the Prevention of Terrorism and other widely used administrative measures. In the summer of 2001

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence