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Exploring the real-time smart city dashboard

actions are context-dependent (Adam, 2008: 3). Timing thus is a highly normative notion. The ‘just in time’ of realtime mapping is unquestioningly equated with being ‘right on time’. What’s more, dashboards increasingly employ predictive algorithms to map potential futures in anticipatory ways. Examples of predictive mapping and pre-emptive action include: crime mapping, spotting potential terrorist attacks and detecting fraudulent patterns (Crang and Graham, 2007; Crandall, 2010). Timing subtly shifts from what happens now to what might happen, a kind of future forward

in Time for mapping