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themselves readily admit. ‘If policy is grand and powerful’, wrote Clausewitz, ‘so also will be the war, and this may be carried to the point at which war attains to its absolute form.’ 3 Third, even if the goals of policy do remain limited, there is no guarantee that they will be pursued by limited means. In short, total war is alien neither to the theory nor to the practice of realism. Realism, therefore, is no solution to the

in Political concepts
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Universalism and the Jewish question

anti-Judaic tradition is part of our cultural world, even if it is fortunately not the whole story and rarely goes uncontested. For much of our adult lives it looked to us that there has been some progress in transcending the barbaric forms of racism and antisemitism that emerged with modern society – not least in the waging of total wars between nation states, in the brutality integral to Western domination of colonised peoples, and in the

in Antisemitism and the left

movements to greater economic and political power and the demands of war. As a consequence of the effectiveness of state intervention in staving off social revolution and prosecuting total war it was increasingly believed that the state could and should have a greater role in society to deal with social problems: want, poverty, unemployment, sickness, ignorance. The state was seen as a tool to achieve social justice, fairness and liberty by

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Jürgen Habermas and the European left

for the sake of the victims themselves but additionally as a means of ‘reassuring ourselves [i.e. all Europeans] of our own political identity’. He endeavoured to keep in mind ‘the gruesome features of a century that “invented” the gas chambers, total war, state-sponsored genocide, and extermination camps’, but at the same time not to become ‘transfixed by the gruesomeness of the century’, not to evade ‘conscious assessment of the horror that finally

in Antisemitism and the left