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The effects of gender, households and ethnicity

Social reproduction of youth labour market inequalities 13 The social reproduction of youth labour market inequalities: the effects of gender, households and ethnicity Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mark Smith and Paola Villa Introduction Young people have been disproportionately hit by the economic crisis. In many  European countries, unemployment rates have increased faster for youth  than for prime age groups (O’Reilly et al., 2015). Vulnerability to the risks of poverty and precarious employment has been compounded by ­increasing  economic inequalities and the rise

in Making work more equal
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is a long-standing one. This applied to the state's – or the public sector's – provision of public health. 3 Britain was a nation to be protected from foreign diseases. 4 Anxieties were raised whenever an outbreak occurred – a sign of how rare smallpox had become, but also of the dread which it still elicited in the general public. Smallpox represented Britain's vulnerability to outside threats in a world of global mass transport by air and sea. And, as Roberta Bivins has shown, it came to be symbolic of Britain's relationship with her empire as attention shifted

in Vaccinating Britain
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, lecturers – even the police, who under the newer Operation Nexus are forced to take a more active role in immigration enforcement, potentially jeopardising relationships with vulnerable groups and deterring those with insecure immigration status from seeking help. The media play their part in this ‘performative politics’ of immigration, sometimes reproducing, sometimes countering invasion imaginaries or the narrative that the UK is a soft touch when it comes to

in Go home?
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: moaning, and expectation. Interestingly, while this scripted interaction is anticipated and well known in advance, its very occurrence is rarely negotiated and contested. In his well-known anthropological work about waiting time in South Africa, anthropologist Vincent Crapanzano notes that at the mercy of time, the waiting individual is subject to “feelings of powerlessness, helplessness, and vulnerability—infantile feelings—and all the rage that these feelings evoke” (Crapanzano 1985, 44). Although this is quite a different socio-historical context, I argue that these

in A table for one
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Negotiating with multiculture

longer in a context where white children are the majority. At the same time, ethnic-minority parents also fear ‘not enough’ of a racial or religious mix which could leave their children more vulnerable to racism (Weekes-Bernard 2007, Rollock et al. 2015). What is notable about this complex situation of desires and fears around multicultural mix is the paucity of language for talking about diversity. As the chapter will explore, the single term ‘good mix’ is used to describe schools which differ very markedly in terms of the ethnic make-up of their student population

in All in the mix
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generations 137 responsibilities, but not necessarily on each and every occasion. So, even though future generations are not around to make claims on our energy and resources, we might still have obligations towards them based upon a theory of justice to which all generations should rationally assent. Therefore, punctuated reciprocity is one facet of the kind of diverse reciprocity that I spend the latter part of Chapter 2 defending. For Goodin (1985: 177–8) those obligations derive from the unilateral power that we hold over our descendants, their vulnerability in

in After the new social democracy
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Keeping up appearances

awkward; but for Rachel, it is now clear that her future date thinks that she is “a total freak” by the mere act of dining by herself in a restaurant. These representations demonstrate the importance of belonging to the right participation unit at the right time. This correlates with Goffman’s claim that “a single is relatively vulnerable to contact, this being the grounds presumably why the ladies who inhabited traditional etiquette manuals did not appear in public unaccompanied; members of a with, after all, can count on some mutual protection” (Goffman 2010, 20

in A table for one

to confirm the vulnerability and contradictions of government activity in this area. In our discussion of these complicated dynamics, we will consider the responses of different audiences to highly staged instances of Home Office performance, suggesting that, in the process, what is revealed is the scepticism of these varied audiences towards the performativity of immigration enforcement and its politics. In making sense of these different

in Go home?
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Ethics in uncomfortable research situations

, however vulnerable, should be treated as if they do not have their own agency and ability to make choices about sharing their lives – and, as in the example above, to question the situations in which they find themselves, including the research situation. We are not able to provide any easy solutions to how researchers ‘should’ behave when such moments happen – except to suggest that they are important moments on which to reflect, when power

in Go home?

reactivates powerful memories and imaginaries of insecurity, border vulnerability, and terror. It thereby generates a classical securitising modality (Huysmans 2014 ), where the choices are either acting, or risking that the state dies. As stated by the prime minister two years later, the future and very existence of the country would indeed be at stake

in Security/ Mobility