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social/spiritual interaction, and also through letters. Peter of Blois wrote to the archdeacon of Picardy that his niece Alice should not be forced to become a nun, but in a later letter to her he congratulated her on her choice of vocation.48 In the mid-twelfth century Amice countess of Leicester received a letter from Gilbert Foliot. Writing c. 1163–68, he apologises for being unable to visit her, owing to his duties and obligations, and states that he ought to have written to her before.49 Gilbert Foliot was also in correspondence with her husband Earl Robert (II

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
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be a key route for such dispersal. These themes have been developed in an analysis of private and royal charters as sources for the place of powerful noblewomen as landholders in twelfth-century society. This argued that it is essential to understand the fragmented nature of the discourse on women that charters articulate. In the process of committing land transactions to parchment, élites created a broken narrative which paradoxically both recorded and created custom, practice and procedure. Bloch argued that the twelfth century was one great writing lesson for

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Animal language and the return of loss in Beowulf

connections of both run- and ræd- to writing and knowledge, makes the intriguing argument that within this oral culture, Æschere was the man who read, guarded, and interpreted secret knowledge for Hrothgar and his people. 17 Hrothgar's outpouring of grief represents an intimate as well as a public loss. The moment of death is, as David Halperin notes, the moment of ultimate intimacy for a heroic couple (a hero and his companion), equivalent to consummation for a heterosexual couple

in Dating Beowulf
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Beowulf translations by Seamus Heaney and Thomas Meyer

, equitable footing, one that offers agency and independence to both parties. 4 Writing about translations from Old English, Daniel Remein develops a related idea: translating the medieval as betrayal; as double-agency; as turning, the work of a turn-coat, as the work of a wolf in sheep's clothing – not the classical notion of a betrayal of an ‘original,’ not the betrayal of some originary Middle Ages, but one of the present. This would be a specifically

in Dating Beowulf
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power and portrayal 2 Power and portrayal lthough the twelfth century is often presented as a ‘Golden Age’ of English historical writing, few historians have discussed the portrayal of twelfth-century women. An important exception, Marjorie Chibnall’s study of women in Orderic Vitalis, is valuable for the way it explores Orderic’s presentation of noblewomen according to their marital status, class and wealth.1 Essentially, Chibnall agreed with Eileen Power that the image of women in literature was complex and reflected the place of women in society generally.2

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
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On Anglo-Saxon things

monuments, idols, natural phenomena like the sun or fire, audible signals such as the sound of a bell. Tacen is another word for a sign, as well as a token or evidence of something. In Daniel, the writing on the wall to be interpreted by the eponymous prophet is 13 Introduction: On Anglo-Saxon things 13 described as a tacen, showing or prefiguring imminent doom (717). Both OE terms –​beacan and tacen –​encompass a diversity of material items, but equally actions, events and phenomena that point to some referent beyond themselves, summoning up a metaphysical dimension

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture

influenced by conventional Christian hagiography and following the traditional form and outline of a saint’s life, it also draws on local, oral sources and imbues its genre with a freshness by including many details and textures from daily life, along with references to familiar landmarks and historical characters. Its writing style is marked by conciseness and clarity. Bede’s later prose Life is more diffuse, filling out the concise account of the anonymous writer, adopting what Bertram Colgrave has called a ‘picturesque’ style of writing and expanding upon a number of

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
A queer history

Elizabeth Freeman's argument for a queer writing of embodied intimacy. I will also draw on H.D., whose poems inspired by the London Blitz use the concept of the palimpsest as a metaphor for a queer, feminist historiography of ancient mythologies. These different modes of queer historiography all shape my understanding of Bryher's distinctive mode of intimacy and community in the novel to shape engagement with tradition and the place of women in a world that can be hostile to them. Bryher's Beowulf shows readers the Blitz through the eyes of the owners and patrons of the

in Dating Beowulf

Argonauts had passed by in safety.50 For Niles, writing in 2006, it is Tupper’s classical learning that has ‘led him into the realm of fancy’ since the ‘very peripheral place of the siren in Anglo-​Saxon lore’ means that we cannot take this solution seriously.51 To my mind, Trautmann’s solution of ‘water in its various forms’ gets closer to the thingness of this riddle creature: the young girl (fæmne geong) may be seen as a spring and the grey-​haired woman (feaxhar cwene) as an ice floe, while the singular warrior (ænlic rinc) is snow.52 As such, Trautmann’s solution

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
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Old things with new things to say

’ in Reassembling the Social:  An Introduction to Actor-​Network Theory (Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2005). See also Lowell Duckert, ‘Speaking Stones, John Muir, and a Slower (Non)Humanities’, in Jeffrey Jerome Cohen (ed.), Animal, Vegetable, Mineral:  Ethics and Objects (Washington, DC: Oliphaunt Books, 2012), pp. 273–​9. 4 Coole and Frost, New Materialisms, p. 6. 5 For an accessible overview of Anglo-​Saxon science, see R. M. Liuzza, ‘In Measure, and Number, and Weight: Writing Science’, in Clare A. Lees (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Medieval

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture