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Luke Martell

it was one in which they had the most votes. Even with war – that guaranteed vote winner for some countries – George W. Bush remains, at the time of writing, open to defeat by a new Democrat challenger when his term of office ends. 2 Beyond the facts about who holds office, the Third Way has left a legacy which plays its part in defining the theory and politics of the early

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

moral identity – an entirely praiseworthy activity. In the Middle Ages, Saint Augustine, in The City of God (413–27), regarded the state and politics as little more than a regrettable necessity (‘the badge of Man’s lost innocence’) and an instrument of maintaining order. Thomas Aquinas, writing in the thirteenth century, claimed a more positive role for the political activity within the state. That role was the promotion of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Ciarán O’Kelly

philosophies of Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau. Article III states that ‘The principle of all sovereignty resides in the Nation. No body or individual may exercise any power other than that expressly emanating from the Nation’. Article III was derived specifically from Rousseau’s writing. 6 There are two ways of thinking about the nation. When the thinkers of the French revolution thought of sovereignty as being vested in

in Political concepts
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Judith Squires

of the feminist writing on public and private has worked to undermine the stability of the dichotomy in that it has uncovered the historical contingency of any distinction between the public and the private, and has drawn attention to the ambiguities arising from the co-existence of several distinct articulations of the distinction within contemporary discourses. However, it is possible that this writing has become

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

‘Marxism’ was largely created by Engels’s writings after the death of his friend. Although German, Marx spent most of his life in exile in England, after having been identified by the authorities in his homeland, denounced as a threat to public order and forced to flee. He devoted himself full-time to writing, revolutionary agitation and political organisation. Marx’s ideas made a substantial impact on

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Middle Ages. Some nations create states as expressions of political nationhood. For Hastings three elements were especially important in the creation of nationhood. War stimulated a sense of national identity and nationalism. The awareness of a wider linguistic sense of identity, rather than dialect, developed as the consequence of writing and the spread of printing. Finally, religion was especially important. The idea of a

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

Clinton or Blair, is ‘Third Way’ if it says so. This focuses on self-proclamation rather than any ‘third party’ analysis. On the other hand, Giddens, 16 writing before the recent European elections, declared that ‘across the world left of centre governments are attempting to institute Third Way programmes’ – whether or not they favour the term itself. He admitted that in Europe

in The Third Way and beyond
Sarah Hale

Etzioni takes the former’s work to a greater level of detail. 7 Etzioni himself promotes the idea of a link, comparing his ‘responsive communitarianism’ with the work of ‘old communitarians’ – Taylor, Sandel and Walzer, and the sociologists Philip Selznick and Robert Bellah. 8 Philip Collins, writing in Renewal , calls communitarianism ‘a loose set of ideas

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis and Kostas Ifantis

-making system at the regional level’,21 thus making Cameron’s ‘institutionalised intergovernmentalism’ sound like a relatively specific analogy.22 Writing on the inappropriateness of classical statist, purely intergovernmental, and traditional federal forms of political organisation, Keohane and Hoffmann have captured the evolving European reality as ‘an elaborate set of networks, closely linked in some ways, partially decomposed in others, whose results depend on the political style in the ascendant at the moment’.23 But perhaps one of the most ‘progressive’ classifications

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

guardian of such rights, not the creator of them. To deprive human beings of such rights is therefore morally wrong. Governments are obliged to uphold these rights; if a government does not, it acts immorally. The most articulate early exponent of this view was John Locke, writing in the late seventeenth century. In his Two Treatises on Government (1690) he itemised these rights as ‘Life, Liberty and Property’. Eighty-six years

in Understanding political ideas and movements