Open Access (free)
Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

Open Access (free)
Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

contemporary Welsh counterparts, used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. A work such as the Rev. Ewen McDiarmid’s collection of sermons, published posthumously in 1804, spread through the Highlands and across the Atlantic, providing material for domestic and emigré Scots preachers; it thereby allowed the printed text to influence the subsequent direction of the oral art of preaching. It is an editorial tenet of this book that orality extends up and down the social ladder, though its manifestations and uses will vary according to

in The spoken word
Richard Suggett and Eryn White

the same period of the ‘buried’ nationalities of central Europe and the rediscovery or invention of national traditions.1 The history of decline of the other Celtic languages suggests that the resilience of the spoken word in Welsh occurred against the odds. Why was Welsh different? The history of the spoken word is inseparable not only from the interaction between different languages but also the interrelation between spoken and written forms of the same language. Wales alone among the Celtic languages developed a vigorous print culture in the vernacular that built

in The spoken word
Siobhán McIlvanney

oral and written forms – and the consequent importance of the education system – in articulating their cross-cultural position. The interdiction on uncensored female expression within the family home and the narrators’ underconfidence in French outside it may also contribute to  Writing the dynamics of identity the need for a narrative outlet in which they are given a voice: unable to experience the freedom of their brothers and fathers, beur female protagonists are shown to experience it vicariously through the reading, and, subsequently, the writing of

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Open Access (free)
The ‘outside’ in poetry in the 1980s and 1990s
Linden Peach

poet than Gillian Clarke partly because she draws so much on oral modes while Clarke’s work is rooted in written forms often associated with women, such as the diary and the letter. In aesthetic terms, the centre-margin debate is based upon the centrality of familiar assumptions about poetry which professional critics often reiterate unquestioningly. Despite Gary Day’s generally incisive appraisal of what he perceives as the dominant political idiom in poetry criticism in the mid 1990s, he lapses into unchallenged assumptions such as ‘poetry is private, almost

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
Roslyn Kerr

created it becomes lost from view. The best example of ‘black boxing’ (Latour, 1991 ) in sport occurs through rules and regulations. All sports now have countless rules and regulations in place that exist in written form as inscriptions. These have been produced in order to ensure that the sport runs effectively and that a winner can be determined fairly and appropriately, but they were not created arbitrarily. Many rules have come into effect because of occurrences of inappropriate behaviour or similar circumstances

in Sport and technology
Mia-Marie Hammarlin

opinion (public opinion) and publicitet (publicity) were also introduced into the Swedish language at this time (Holmberg et al. 1983:13). 84Exposed miscellaneous unchristian entertainment, and the circulation of radical manuscripts – spread throughout the kingdom and also assumed written form in a literary genre that had been inspired by French scandal journalism. The collective name of this type of writing was the chronique scandaleuse – a broad genre within printed news distribution via so-called nouvellistes à la main. Darnton describes it in the following way: ‘A

in Exposed
Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

its instigators made significant and widely adopted contributions. While their primary interest was the improvement of standards among the lower clergy, their teachings could not but influence contemporary conceptions of episcopal authority and hierarchical status. Ideas on episcopacy were disseminated in both oral and written form, through informal conversation, oratory, correspondence and reflections as well as through published texts. Obviously, bishops like Camus and Godeau were in the best possible position to express their opinions on, for example, episcopal

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Barry Atkins

written forms similarly requires examination. If we accept that we are confronted with a form of narrative storytelling where the production of story is the end result of play, as well as with a game where ‘winning’ is everything, then analysis of those storytelling processes becomes necessary. As a primarily literary critic, with some background in academic historiography (the study of how history is written), this new mode of computer-based storytelling seems to me to be both amenable to contemporary chap1.p65 7 13/02/03, 14:00 8 More than a game literary

in More than a game
Open Access (free)
Reading SimCity
Barry Atkins

-documentaries that reveal the artifice of the text might also relate to the discussion of audience appreciation of the ‘well-turned phrase’ that was discussed in Chapter 2. For a more detailed discussion of both ‘utopia’ and ‘utopianism’ in relation to written forms of popular texts, see McCracken, Pulp, pp. 154–82. I realise that I might have been able to call on the substantial support of a wealth of psychoanalytic theory if I substituted the term ‘flaw’ 136 13/02/03, 14:23 Managing the real: SimCity 11 12 13 14 chap5.p65 137 with ‘lack’. I wish to retain my focus here

in More than a game