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oral and written forms – and the consequent importance of the education system – in articulating their cross-cultural position. The interdiction on uncensored female expression within the family home and the narrators’ underconfidence in French outside it may also contribute to  Writing the dynamics of identity the need for a narrative outlet in which they are given a voice: unable to experience the freedom of their brothers and fathers, beur female protagonists are shown to experience it vicariously through the reading, and, subsequently, the writing of

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Open Access (free)
The ‘outside’ in poetry in the 1980s and 1990s

poet than Gillian Clarke partly because she draws so much on oral modes while Clarke’s work is rooted in written forms often associated with women, such as the diary and the letter. In aesthetic terms, the centre-margin debate is based upon the centrality of familiar assumptions about poetry which professional critics often reiterate unquestioningly. Despite Gary Day’s generally incisive appraisal of what he perceives as the dominant political idiom in poetry criticism in the mid 1990s, he lapses into unchallenged assumptions such as ‘poetry is private, almost

in Across the margins
The Show from street to print

, backing up the contention I made previously about Dekker’s practice. In 1613 the Grocers recorded that Munday had presented to them a ‘Devise or proiect in wryting sett downe’, which he offered to read to the Company Court.121 Assuming that this was common practice, it is therefore entirely feasible that the Ironmongers had access to Dekker and Christmas’s plot in written form, making it easier to copy that plot into their minutes. Strangely, two of the passages in these minutes describe the pageants in the past tense (‘The fourth presentation was Lemnions fforge

in Pageantry and power
Open Access (free)
Thomas of Erceldoune’s prophecy, Eleanor Hull’s Commentary on the penitential Psalms, and Thomas Norton’s Ordinal of alchemy

, ‘Lystyns, lordyngs, … I sall ȝow tell al strew a tale / Als euer was herde by nyghte or daye’, which shall include his telling of ‘Batells donne sythene many a ȝere; / And of batells ϸat done sall bee’.16 Such a conventional opening invites identification of the narrator as a poet providing a traditional oral performance of the work, whose written form includes those legacies of the oral tradition. This first-person becomes attributed to Thomas explicitly not many lines later: ‘Als I me went’, and sat under the tree, ‘I herde ϸe jaye … als I laye’.17 Thus the initial ‘I

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England