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), Australia, Japan, and the Secretary-General all participated in the First Paris Conference on Cambodia. 40 The most significant rule of the game at the Conference was set by two rivals, that is, Vietnam and China. On their insistence, the principle of unanimity was adopted when dealing with substantive issues. 41 This arrangement effectively delivered the right of veto to the China-sponsored Khmer Rouge on the

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

subsequent eruption of violence, the Security Council authorised an Australian-led multinational force (INTERFET) to restore peace and security and to facilitate humanitarian assistance operations. 9 In this episode, Australia no doubt pursued its regional foreign policy (with the blessing of the United States), while a transnational coalition of civil society organisations pursued either their human rights programmes or

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

Kurds of northern Iraq (1991), Somalia (1992), Bosnia (1992–95), the intervention of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) in Liberia (1990–96), the US-led intervention in Haiti (1994), French-led forces in Rwanda (1994), NATO’s intervention in Serbia and Kosovo (1999) and the Australian-led intervention in East Timor (1999). In Rwanda effective French intervention came very late, following three months of genocidal massacre by the Hutus of

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)

Muslims, which in instances of liberation wars were committed first by the Christian insurgents, who had opted for the use of violence, with the Ottomans over-reacting (in the Greek and Bulgarian cases) and then facing the wrath of ‘civilized’ Europe. Military intervention was never contemplated for the excesses and barbarities of the British in Jamaica, South Africa and elsewhere in Africa, the French and Belgians in Africa, quasi-genocide in British Australia or US policy

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Surveillance and transgender bodies in a post-9/ 11 era of neoliberalism

surgery. However, several countries (including Argentina, Bangladesh, Denmark, India, Nepal, and Pakistan) have instituted new laws and policies that range from adding a third-gender option to removing certain obstacles for declaring gender identity to the state. Moreover, in 2011 and 2012 Australia and New Zealand respectively introduced the X (or ‘indeterminate’ and ‘unspecified’) category as a marker

in Security/ Mobility
Analysing the example of data territorialisation

of Australians has been subject to national storage regulations; South Korea demands domestic storage of geographic data; and Brazil discussed national storage regulations when passing the Marco Civil in 2013, but weakened the requirements at the last moment (Polatin-Reuben and Wright 2014 : 3). Deutsche Telekom proposed to the German Federal Government and the European Union (EU) to begin with a

in Security/ Mobility
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds

See C. L. Robertson, International Politics since World War II: A Short History (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997 ), p. 122. 8 The Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty (the Manila Pact) was signed on 8 September 1954 by Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
A European fin de siècle

intervention in Colombia’s cocaine provinces on behalf of the ‘civilized world’. Meanwhile, protesters in East Timor in 1999, prior to the entry of Australian-led peacekeepers, were carrying slogans inviting NATO to their protection. Should the Alliance have become involved? Or will NATO engage only on specific occasions that (a) provide good PR feedback; (b) have no nuclear weapons and (c) run no risk of

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Just war and against tyranny

, ‘The Colonial Origins of International Law’, 9–13, 22–3; P. Keal, ‘“Just Backward Children”: International Law and the Conquest of Non-European Peoples’, Australian Journal of International Affairs , 49:2 (2008), 196–7. For a more nuanced assessment see G. Cavallar, ‘Vitoria, Grotius, Pufendorf, Wolff and Vattel: Accomplices of European Colonialism and Exploitation or True Cosmopolitans?’, Journal of the History of International Law , 10

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
The analytical framework

Peacekeeping: Building on the Cambodian Experience (Canberra: Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1994 ), pp. 201–13. 67 HMSO, The Army Field Manual (London: HMSO, 1994). 68 See Evans, Cooperating for Peace , pp. 11

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change