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Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)

8 A sample of Italian Fascist colonialism: nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)1 Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti and Cecilia Sironi Introduction: historical background The Italo-Ethiopian War (also known as the Abyssinian War or the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) refers to an armed conflict waged by Italy during Mussolini’s regime against the Empire of Ethiopia in 1935, which led to the proclamation of Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East Africa) in 1936.2 The history of Italian colonialism started approximately fifty

in Colonial caring
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A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

associates spoke English.6 Thus in 1905 Irish mission work in Nigeria grew 189 Barbra Mann Wall when Irish-born Bishop Joseph Shanahan took over leadership of the Holy Ghost mission in Calabar (the eastern region).7 Soon, Irish missionaries dominated in the area. Because colonial powers’ religion was Christianity, this granted the Irish missions a distinct advantage, and they benefited from British colonialism.8 Catholic mission personnel co-operated with colonial leaders who wanted the Catholics to run hospitals and schools, while Catholic missionaries wanted access to

in Colonial caring
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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

nursing.1 This omission has already been addressed in the closely related field of history of medicine through a number of publications over a long period of time,2 and this book aims to help correct the balance for nursing’s history. The history of nursing presents a unique perspective from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism, which includes aspects of race and cultural difference, as well as class and gender. Simultaneously, viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule can reveal the different faces of what, on the surface, may

in Colonial caring
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organised remained vital elements of the community. The conjunction of colonial and post-colonial history and the history of nursing enables us to better appreciate the multiplicities of colonialism and post-colonialism and the diversity within 235 Rima D. Apple the nursing profession. By bringing together studies from around the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, Colonial Caring:  A  History of Colonial and Post-colonial Nursing allows us to untangle the complications inherent in any historical study of nursing. The overlapping foci of these

in Colonial caring
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny

a strong female presence in British India at this time in relation to the ‘civilising mission’ of British colonialism in India, and indeed the presence of British women and children in India stemmed from a shift in colonial policy in the early part of the nineteenth century that emphasised the presence of soldiers’ and administrators’ families for various socially performative and practical reasons. Klaver explains that the rationale behind this shift in practice was that the soldiers themselves would be comforted by the presence of their wives and children during

in Colonial caring

-up priority setting is not a minor but a fundamental problem for the ex-colonial world. Most of the South is already caught in a tangle of northern economic investments, disinvestments, bi- and multi-lateral demands, controls, requirements, promises and threats that many have called neo-colonialism. The fact that global immunisation programmes are humanitarian in their aim rather than directly exploitive does not prevent their strongly destructive

in The politics of vaccination
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914

, ‘Second opinion:  making global health histories:  the postcolonial worldliness of biomedicine’, Social History of Medicine, 27 (2014), 372–84.  6 See S.  Hodges, ‘The global menace’, Social History of Medicine, 25 (2012), 719–28.  7 The passenger manifest of the Canton has her returning for her second stint in Hong Kong on 4 March 1898. Ancestry.com, ‘UK, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890–1960’.  8 Nursing Record and Hospital World, 2 July 1898, p. 6, and British Journal of Nursing, 7 February 1903, p. 103.  9 C. Anderson, Subaltern Lives: Biographies of Colonialism in

in Colonial caring
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40

4 ‘They do what you wish; they like you; you the good nurse!’:1 colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40 Linda Bryder Introduction In 1911 New Zealand’s Department of Public Health launched its Native Health nursing scheme, to serve the health needs of the local indigenous population, the Māori.2 At that time the Māori population numbered about 52,000; most lived in extremely isolated small communities and had much poorer health standards than non-Māori. The circular announcing the scheme explained that the appointees would be trained

in Colonial caring
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

Winifred C. Connerton  5 R. L.  Beisner, Twelve against Empire:  The Anti-Imperialists, 1898–1900 (New  York:  McGraw-Hill, 1968); E.  B. Tompkins, Anti-Imperialism in the United States:  The Great Debate, 1890–1920 (Philadelphia:  University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970).  6 J. Go, American Empire and the Politics of Meaning: Elite Political Cultures in the Philippines and Puerto Rico during U.S. Colonialism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), p. 27.  7 G. W. Davis, Annual Report to the Secretary of War on Civil Affairs of Porto Rico (Washington, DC:  Government

in Colonial caring