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Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)

8 A sample of Italian Fascist colonialism: nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)1 Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti and Cecilia Sironi Introduction: historical background The Italo-Ethiopian War (also known as the Abyssinian War or the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) refers to an armed conflict waged by Italy during Mussolini’s regime against the Empire of Ethiopia in 1935, which led to the proclamation of Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East Africa) in 1936.2 The history of Italian colonialism started approximately fifty

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

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The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William Morris

Otis has shown that the germ theory of disease was crucially intertwined in the late nineteenth century with concepts of invasion and colonialism, especially in France and Britain: ‘if one believes that invisible germs, spread by human contact, can make one sick, one becomes more and more anxious about penetration and about any connection with other people – the same anxieties inspired by imperialism’. 96 These comments are particularly pertinent to the context of Bégum and Uranie , written after France's bitter

in Progress and pathology
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Managing diabetes, managing medicine

University Press, 1995); J. C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998); G. C. Bowker and S. Star, Sorting Things Out (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999); N. Dirks, Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001); Weisz, Divide and Conquer , pp. xix–xx. 87 This is not to suggest that inscription, categorisation, or standardisation had been absent in British medicine. Rather that such practices (and

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body

). 11 On modern Unani medicine, see N. Quaiser, ‘Politics, Culture and Colonialism: Unani's Debate with Doctory’, in B. Pati and M. Harrison (eds), Health, Medicine and Empire: Perspectives on Colonial India (Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 2001), 317–55; S. Alavi, Islam and Healing: Loss and Recovery of an Indo-Muslim Medical Tradition, 1600–1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); G. N. A. Attewell, Refiguring Unani Tibb: Plural Healing in Late Colonial India (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2007). On modern Siddha

in Progress and pathology

Community Medicine? ; S. Murphy, ‘The early days of the MRC Social Medicine Research Unit’, Social History of Medicine , 12:3 (1999), 389–406; V. Berridge, Marketing Health: Smoking and the Discourse of Public Health in Britain, 1945–2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 15–16. 86 M. D. Moore, ‘Harnessing the power of difference: colonialism and British chronic disease research, 1940–1975’, Social History of Medicine , 29:2 (2016), 384–404. 87 T. Osborne, ‘Epidemiology as an investigative paradigm: the

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

associates spoke English.6 Thus in 1905 Irish mission work in Nigeria grew 189 Barbra Mann Wall when Irish-born Bishop Joseph Shanahan took over leadership of the Holy Ghost mission in Calabar (the eastern region).7 Soon, Irish missionaries dominated in the area. Because colonial powers’ religion was Christianity, this granted the Irish missions a distinct advantage, and they benefited from British colonialism.8 Catholic mission personnel co-operated with colonial leaders who wanted the Catholics to run hospitals and schools, while Catholic missionaries wanted access to

in Colonial caring
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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

nursing.1 This omission has already been addressed in the closely related field of history of medicine through a number of publications over a long period of time,2 and this book aims to help correct the balance for nursing’s history. The history of nursing presents a unique perspective from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism, which includes aspects of race and cultural difference, as well as class and gender. Simultaneously, viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule can reveal the different faces of what, on the surface, may

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)

organised remained vital elements of the community. The conjunction of colonial and post-colonial history and the history of nursing enables us to better appreciate the multiplicities of colonialism and post-colonialism and the diversity within 235 Rima D. Apple the nursing profession. By bringing together studies from around the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, Colonial Caring:  A  History of Colonial and Post-colonial Nursing allows us to untangle the complications inherent in any historical study of nursing. The overlapping foci of these

in Colonial caring
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny

a strong female presence in British India at this time in relation to the ‘civilising mission’ of British colonialism in India, and indeed the presence of British women and children in India stemmed from a shift in colonial policy in the early part of the nineteenth century that emphasised the presence of soldiers’ and administrators’ families for various socially performative and practical reasons. Klaver explains that the rationale behind this shift in practice was that the soldiers themselves would be comforted by the presence of their wives and children during

in Colonial caring