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Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation

,000 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as the first-time use of an investigational therapeutic drug ( WHO, 2018b ). Such innovative programmatic responses are now urgently needed for crises requiring the safe transportation of populations under siege from violence or for those communities in peril from the deteriorating physical environment. Organisations such as MSF and UNICEF have well-developed codes of conduct specifically to address innovation within their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

overutilised. The present water crisis can be attributed to a large extent to two Soviet-era polices: the establishment and demarcation of the five Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs); and the rapid expansion of irrigation agriculture since the 1950s. Dams constructed upstream, in the Kyrgyz and Tajik SSRs in particular, stored water for irrigation and also hydroelectric production (HEP), which accounted for 35% of Central Asia’s energy by the early 1990s.12 These policies and processes created a regional economic complex, but also led to intra-regional problems and tensions

in Limiting institutions?

Zurich and London Agreements of February 1959 between Britain, Greece and Turkey created the independent ‘Republic of Cyprus’ in 1960. The 1960 constitution provided for strict power-sharing between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities. The latter, constituting roughly one-fifth of the total population, was granted veto powers over all major legislation, and entitled to a share in governmental

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

: The Security Council, 2. Decides to authorize the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps, in consultation with the Government of the Republic of the Congo, to provide the Government with such military assistance as may be necessary until, through the efforts of the Congolese Government with the technical assistance of the United Nations, the

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

NATO enlargement took on an open-ended character. In 1999, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary were the first to be admitted, but the United States made clear that the next round might well include at least one of the Baltic states and that Ukraine could not be ruled out. In its early days, the new Bush administration sharpened the unilateralist tone of America’s European diplomacy. Its favourite project, National Missile Defense, implied destabilising the existing regime of nuclear deterrence, while renewing Europe’s military and technological subordination to

in Limiting institutions?

. Therefore, in 1995 an OSCE Liaison Office in Central Asia was established in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan. This effort was enlarged in 1998 with the establishment of OSCE centres in the capitals of three other Central Asian republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. (The fifth Central Asian state, Tajikistan, has a full-scale OSCE mission operating on its territory with a more specific mandate in the field of conflict management that will be discussed below.) The focus of OSCE efforts in Central Asia has been on stimulating education about democratisation

in Limiting institutions?

states used aid to moderate the radicalism of the nationalist republics; subversion and media wars gave way to inter-state diplomacy (Dessouki 1982: 319–47). These developments seemed to lay the foundations for a new more state-centric version of Pan-Arab order organised around the Arab summit system. Summits had been initiated by Nasser in 1964 in an early acknowledgement that Egypt’s hegemony could no longer be imposed and that an Arab order had to be negotiated among sovereign states. Aiming not to promote Pan-Arab action but to contain Syria

in The international politics of the Middle East