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collapse into anarchy and ethnic turmoil. Moreover, Putin was able to win over key oligarchs to his view that the only way to bolster Russia’s flagging economy was to reduce the anarchic powers of the governors, and to strengthen, ‘the power-vertical’. As Putin stated in his message to the Federal Assembly: ‘It’s a scandalous thing when a fifth of the legal acts adopted in the regions contradict the country’s Basic Law, when republic constitutions and province charters are at odds with the Russian Constitution, and when trade barriers, or even worse, border demarcation

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Regional elections and political parties

its citizens’, and in so doing ‘wrote the final chapter of their own political life’.4 In presidential decrees promulgated in October 1993, Yeltsin called for the abolition of regional and local soviets (assemblies), which were to be replaced in new elections by much smaller and weaker assemblies. The decrees whilst mandatory for the regions were only recommended for the republics.5 The first terms of the new assemblies were to be elected for a period of just two years (as with the first session of the national parliament) and elections were to be conducted over the

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
The victims' struggle for recognition and recurring genocide memories in Namibia

repatriation to Namibia, it was the Charité, a Berlin university hospital, that became the first institution in Germany to hand over the skulls to the German government for repatriation to Namibia. In his letter to the Namibian Embassy, dated 21 October 2008, Professor Karl Max Einhaupl, CEO of Charité, expressed the preparedness of the Charité to return the skulls to Namibia.19 The Federal Republic of Germany was expected to cover the cost of transporting the skulls. The official handover of the skulls was witnessed by a delegation of fifty-​four representatives (whose

in Human remains in society
A critical assessment of work effort in Britain in comparison to Europe

populations. The 2014 survey was the seventh in the series and covers over 20 nations. A 120-item module on ‘Work, Family and Well-Being’ was included in the second (2004) and fifth (2010) in the series (Gallie, 2013). This included data on the intensity of work. Our second source of European data is the EWCS. The quality of work has been a focal point of this survey since its inception in 1991. Furthermore, its Working longer and harder? Britain in European comparison 193 content has been expanded considerably since then – from 20 questions in 1991 to well over 100 in

in Making work more equal
A critical reassessment

2 Macroeconomic policy in the Celtic Tiger: a critical reassessment DENIS O’HEARN The miraculous turnaround in the fortunes of the southern Irish economy during the 1990s fooled most experts. The upturn began in the early 1990s, following one of the worst economic periods in the history of the Irish state. The economy then ‘took off’ in 1994 for seven years of sustained high growth that earned the Irish Republic the popular name of the ‘Celtic Tiger’. The Celtic Tiger emerged from a historic expansion in the United States that was centred on the information

in The end of Irish history?

Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland must travel to Britain to obtain an abortion. All figures relate to women from the Irish Republic unless otherwise stated. Green Paper on Abortion (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999), p. 5. Figures calculated on the basis of the number of women giving Irish addresses to British clinics between 1967 and 1998. 108 26/3/03, 15:12 Women and the economy 109 28 All-Party Oireachtas Committee, Fifth Progress Report: Abortion (Dublin: Stationery Office, 2000), p. 86. 29 Ibid., p. 86. 30 E. Mahon, C. Conlon and L. Dillon, Women and

in The end of Irish history?

six countries (Czech Republic, Spain, the UK, 160 Base to end year percentage change 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Bulgaria Romania Poland Lithuania Latvia Hungary Estonia Slovak Republic Portugal Slovenia Luxembourg Czech Republic UK Malta Belgium Netherlands France Croatia Spain Ireland –20 Greece 0 Figure 17.1  Change in monthly minimum wages at current prices, national currency 2008–16 Source: Eurostat database online (extracted 21 August 2016). Minimum wages and wage-setting systems in Greece and the UK 333 $30,000 2008 2015 $25

in Making work more equal
Racism, immigration and the state

subdivided further in terms of ethnicity, tribal group, caste, gender, age and social class, such that they are far from constituting a homogeneous group. Although exact figures are difficult to calculate, the main countries of origin of asylum seekers seem to be Nigeria, Romania, Moldova and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 1992, Ireland received only thirtynine applications for asylum. By 1996, this figure had risen to 1,179; it had risen to 7,724 in 1999 and to 10,325 in 2001 (Figure 4.1). In total, there were approximately 40,000 applications for asylum in Ireland

in The end of Irish history?

forms of government’. 28 John Vincent was of the view that ‘Kant appeared to imply an exception to the rule of nonintervention if by intervention a republic could be established or a despotic regime crushed’. 29 Along similar lines, Fernando Tesón maintains that Kant’s ‘nonintervention principle is dependent upon compliance with the First Definitive Article. Internal legitimacy based on respect for human rights and democracy is what

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

other American States ranged against it’. 5 The subsequent 1903 treaty with Cuba provided the US with a right to intervene ostensibly for the good of Cuba (see below); Theodore Roosevelt’s ‘corollary’ to the Monroe Doctrine of 1904 said that ‘chronic wrongdoing’ in Latin American states could lead to intervention; and the Wilson Doctrine (1913) led to US interventions in Mexico (1914), Haiti (1915) and the Dominican Republic (1916). Such

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century