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element among a population depends on many factors. These include emotional, personal, family or class interests, loyalties and traditions; the national historical experience; and cultural support for democratic principles of government. Combinations of these and other factors may lead to a movement in favour of democracy (as in Spain after the death of General Franco in 1975) or against democracy (as in the German Weimar Republic during the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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‘England’ and ‘Britain’ often means that insufficient attention is given to English national identity and its distinctiveness from the other nations that constitute Britain. English nationhood has been shaped by war. Battles and wars of the fifth and sixth centuries determined the very territory of England. The English–Welsh frontier was established long before King Offa of Mercia built his Dyke in the eighth century. The

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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larger nation. This was especially the case in the sprawling multi-national Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, both struggling with rising nationalism and both trying to assert imperial nationalism and unity over the demands for greater self-government and independence of restless subservient nations. After 1870 with the setting up of the Third French Republic and the unification of Germany, reactionary

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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repudiated. Such movements have had some success. One example is the National Front in France. The National Front appeals to the working classes and lower middle classes threatened by globalisation, job losses, insecurity, immigration, big business and the far left. The 1986 National Assembly elections, using proportional representation for the first and only time during the Fifth Republic, resulted in the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
The evolving European security architecture

the overall European landscape when the EDC plan was overturned by an unholy alliance of Gaullists and communists in the Assemblée Nationale in 1954, and, once the Fifth Republic had been established in 1958, de Gaulle dominated European politics. As a non-member, Britain was not directly involved in the debate and did not gain much credibility or sympathy by trying to undermine the Community (the creation of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) in 1960) 156 Theory and reform in the European Union and by signing agreements with the US on military (including

in Theory and reform in the European Union
New polity dynamics

institutional reforms was agreed to take place in 2004, a time when Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic (among Debating the future of Europe 201 others like Slovenia, Slovakia and Cyprus) are expected to join, covering, inter alia, the division of competences between the Union, the states and possibly subnational authorities; the status of the Charter of Fundamental Rights; the simplification of the Treaties; and the role of national parliaments in the integration process (see below). In a high-stakes endgame, which undoubtedly brought on a flash of déjà vu, the NIT

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies

. A series of laws passed between 1988 and 1990, referred to as the Markovic laws, were meant to govern the process of privatisation in Yugoslavia. The process was stalled, however, by the outbreak of war in Yugoslavia’s former republics. Following the wars, the newly independent states of the former Yugoslavia created and followed their own laws and processes for privatisation (Ristic´, 2005). The Serbian state continued to administer the process of privatisation in Kosovo up until 1999 in what is now widely considered an illegitimate, if not illegal, manner. Many

in Building a peace economy?

the Free State's butter production. Four-fifths of the total employment in dairying and bacon curing was concentrated in the south-western province of Munster. 39 The co-operative movement and civil war Military conflict provided a stern challenge for the Irish Free State Government in 1922. The capture of Dublin's Four Courts by Republican forces opposed to the Treaty in April 1922 challenged the legitimacy of the new state. The government responded in June by using the newly established National Army to crush the

in Civilising rural Ireland
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Relations between the European Union and Mercosur

-standing, economic and cultural ties with Latin America. This argues that it is to be expected that there will be an increase in the EU’s involvement in Latin America as a result of there being an increase in shared values between both regions. The fifth explanation given in the literature, the interdependence debate, is related to the increasing levels of globalization. This argument predicts that if there are increasing levels of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America, the EU’s involvement in the region will also increase. Finally, the sixth explanation is

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur: