Colonialism, grave robbery and intellectual history
Larissa Förster, Dag Henrichsen, Holger Stoecker and Hans Axasi╪Eichab

In 1885, the Berlin pathologist Rudolf Virchow presented three human skeletons from the colony of German South West Africa to the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory. The remains had been looted from a grave by a young German scientist, Waldemar Belck, who was a member of the second Lüderitz expedition and took part in the occupation of colonial territory. In an attempt to re-individualise and re-humanise these human remains, which were anonymised in the course of their appropriation by Western science, the authors consult not only the colonial archive, but also contemporary oral history in Namibia. This allows for a detailed reconstruction of the social and political contexts of the deaths of the three men, named Jacobus Hendrick, Jacobus !Garisib and Oantab, and of Belck’s grave robbery, for an analysis of how the remains were turned into scientific objects by German science and institutions, as well as for an establishment of topographical and genealogical links with the Namibian present. Based on these findings, claims for the restitution of African human remains from German institutions cannot any longer be regarded as a contemporary phenomenon only but must be understood as part of an African tradition of resistance against Western colonial and scientific practices.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Heather Shore

, cunningly Convert to their own Use the Labour Of their good-natur’d heedless Neighbour: These were called Knaves; but, bar the Name, The grave Industrious were the Same.19 Likewise Henry Fielding was well aware of the ironies that the criminal justice system brought to his court, commenting on the case of: several Wretches who had been apprehended the Night before by Mr. Welch, were brought before Mr. Fielding and Mr. Errington; when one who was in a dreadful Condition, being all over covered with the Itch, was recommended to the Care of the Overseers; another who

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
The racecourse and racecourse life
Mike Huggins

for them, and then complaining to him when their horse lost, ‘It’s robbery!’ and ‘It’s lucky I didn’t give you my sovereign that you’ve lost’.50 Traditional expectations held that women should know little about racing and horses so that their more informed menfolk would place bets on their behalf. Pre-1914, few self-respecting women entered betting enclosures, with their noise, pushing and commotion. But after the war some women began accompanying their escorts, and in 1925 the Daily Sketch thought it sufficiently noteworthy to provide a large ‘shock

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Maureen Mulholland

, and especially for failing to be in frankpledge and for breaking the assizes of bread and ale. The leet’s punishments were often harsh, typically including stocks, pillory, tumbrel (exposure to ridicule and shame by being made to ride round in a dung cart), and, on some manors, imprisonment, but it could not take life nor could it mutilate unless the lord’s grant included infangthief, outfangthief and gallows.57 By the fourteenth century its powers had been limited by legislation, removing to the royal justices cases of burglary, robbery, theft, counterfeiting

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Open Access (free)
John Marriott

book reverberated with familiar concerns about the condition of the metropolitan poor. Mendicancy, alcohol, Sabbath breaking, gambling and robbery, he argued, were endemic witnesses to the moral destitution of the poor, in the face of which the church had proved ineffective. The attendant demand for new initiatives was a clarion call to evangelicals. London’s ‘mass of

in The other empire
Richard Suggett

grave suspicion that a harper, Jenkin ap Syr David, had been involved in the death of the poet Hugh ap John alias Prydydd, whose corpse had been found under Llanidloes bridge the morning after a Mayday ‘merry-night’. The harper, who seems habitually to have carried a ‘crab-cudgel’, had quarrelled with the poet at the merry-night but, by his own account, had remained with the company until dawn when he went out into the streets and roused some of the townsfolk, one after another, with the serenade Hwntus Up, that is ‘The Hunt Is Up’.35 A number of minstrels were

in The spoken word
Elizabeth Vandiver and Ralph Keen

this cunning, as he complained that he was unjustly pressed by his adversaries and driven into public, he soon gained the greatest favor for himself, not just among the simple people, who easily believe and freely open their wide-spread, itching ears to every novelty; but also among many grave, learned men, who believing in his words through genuine simplicity, thought that the Monk sought nothing else, other than defense of the truth against the Seekers of indulgences, who (so Luther kept on accusing) appeared more zealous for money than for souls. And so that he

in Luther’s lives