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and experimental quantitative designs 3. Identify the key features of a randomised controlled trial 40 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 40 11/05/2018 16:14 Quantitative research generally uses large numbers of participants. This is because it seeks to draw accurate conclusions about, for example, how common a health problem is within a population, what factors increase a person’s likelihood of developing a health problem (e.g. weight, gender, wealth, employment, education etc.), or whether a medicine or other intervention is effective in treating a health problem

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simply, is the review worth doing? Is the question worth answering? The review question must be precise enough to ensure that the review can be completed. Systematic reviews are normally undertaken by a team of people, but can sometimes still take one or two years to complete. A review question that would need hundreds of thousands of studies to answer it would not be feasible to complete. There are some easy ways to ensure that a proper review question is developed. ‘Does it work’ (or effectiveness) questions use a technique called PICO (Population, Intervention

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. Understand the key parts of economic evaluations and the data that feed into them 3. Be able to begin to interpret and understand the results of economic evaluations 71 A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers Chapter 5: Introduction The cost of providing healthcare is rising. As the population grows and becomes older, this increases the demand for healthcare interventions (e.g. drugs, therapies and services). Health services have limited budgets to meet these demands and need fair and objective ways of deciding which treatments, out of all

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.05. Therefore, service users treated by a community mental health team that has been exposed to training will have different outcomes to service users treated by a community mental health team that has not been exposed to training. The null hypothesis (i.e. that there are no statistical differences) can be rejected! A portion of the results reported by the EQUIP trial are provided below. Outcome HCCQ (Support for service-user autonomy) HADS-D (Depression) VSSS (Service satisfaction) Usual Care Intervention Time Mean SD N Mean SD N Baseline 5.06 1.66 272 5

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the factors that influence the choice of appropriate qualitative research method 3. Understand how to carry out research utilising qualitative research methods 95 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 95 11/05/2018 16:15 Introduction What is qualitative research and why and when should we use it? Qualitative research provides an understanding of a topic in its contextual setting giving explanations and accounts of why people do the things they do. It can also help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and aid the development of theories and strategies. Qualitative

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reduced. Adding depth of understanding to randomised control trials (RCT) Qualitative analysis can be useful when trying to understand why participants do, or do not, engage with interventions being tested as part of a randomised control trial (RCT). During EQUIP, this was explored using a longitudinal, qualitative process evaluation which ran alongside the RCT designed to test the training intervention. This involved: interviews – service users, carers and professionals • Semi-structured sampled from both the intervention and control arm of the trial took part in

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers

and analyse quantitative data in Chapters 3 and 4. Qualitative research explores attitudes, behaviour and experiences through methods such as interviews, focus groups or observation, and we will learn more about this in Chapter 7 and 8. Once the type of research is set, the study needs to be designed in detail. Collaborating with service users and carers in the design of a research study allows researchers to understand how best to approach potential research participants, why people might drop out of research studies (Goward et al., 2006), why an intervention might

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Designing and road testing new measurement scales

Connor-Davidson-Resilience Scale [CD- RISC] - to quantify each participant’s resilience (Smith, 2009). They can also be used to provide an assessment of people as a baseline against which to measure the success of interventions, e.g. the use of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) to assess the effect of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy on psychotic symptoms. Scales may also be used to measure the behaviour of others, for example rating the severity of observed aggression using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale – Revised (SOAS-R), or as an assessment of

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importance and value of PPI involvement in the research process, and this approach was well received. I’ve been surrounded by hard-working and supportive professionals for so long now, so it’s great to meet the workforce of the future and engage with people who will influence care improvements in the world of mental health. Reflective exercise Amira is developing an application for a five-year programme of research designed to develop and test the effectiveness of a telephone support intervention for depression and anxiety. The research will also look at who is best

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Researchers must treat participants and potential participants fairly and equally in order for a study to be considered ethical. This does not mean that all participants must be treated exactly the same way during a research study or a randomised controlled trial. Chapter 3 provides a clear example of when this is not the case. However, sometimes researchers will be expected to provide an effective trial intervention to participants in the control group after a study has finished. This is because of the need to treat participants fairly and equally. 125 BEE (RESEARCH

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