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medical pluralism and the search for hegemony
Enrique Perdiguero

to consider the structure of health care more generally. This is a topic that still needs more in-depth research. 6 Nevertheless, during the period concerned we can identify two main forms of collective medical care: charity provided by authorities and individuals, and so-called ‘friendly societies’. Charitable health care funded by public authorities (municipalities, provinces and the central government) covered home and

in Witchcraft Continued
Nils Freytag

mental illness. At least the same importance was accorded to keeping peace and order. Public security was the primary concern, for example, when in 1837 the somnambulistic visions of ten-year-old Peter Hennes of Koblenz came to the attention of the authorities. The boy had seen not only the apostles but also the Devil and drew large crowds in the city, which caused the Koblenz police sergeant to perceive him as a threat to

in Witchcraft Continued
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic
Éva Pócs

insufficient for a comprehensive survey of the system’s functioning or for the elucidation of its social and mental environment. What we have managed to observe and record was in fact not so much the practice as the narratives about it, from which we can make only indirect and conditional inferences about the real situation. What follows is a preliminary overview of the findings based on around one hundred collected narratives. Until

in Witchcraft Continued
Open Access (free)
Alison Rowlands

– sometimes sophisticated and usually impassioned – narratives of their innocence which often told a tale of bitter social conflict with their accusers but one lacking the sinister subtext of witchcraft. It was – ironically – usually individuals (children and weak-minded adults) who had suffered little or no physical or mental torment who admitted most freely to being witches, much to the bewilderment of the city councillors. The councillors were left with the problematic and unenviable task of trying to decide which of the competing testimonies they had heard was most

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Open Access (free)
Mirrors of French ideals?
Alison Forrestal

‘note what good you have so as to render thanks for it to the Father of lights, . . . and as to what you lack, that you will try to attain the pure gold that the Angel in the Apocalypse counsels a bishop to buy in order to render himself rich for eternity’.15 Camus’s prelates were sentinels and superintendents who gave ‘order to all’ regarding ‘God’s service and the people’s health’.16 In fact, Camus was among those who actually used Bérulle’s striking title, grand prêtre, to describe the good bishop who possessed all the qualities of an ordinary parish priest, but in

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Thomas D. Frazel and Ralph Keen

, still I single out Methodius for condemning the decisions of Origen, who turned the gospel into philosophy in the minds of many, pouring out his conviction that moderate mental training earns forgiveness of sins, and that this is the righteousness about which the verse ‘The righteous will live by his faith’ speaks. This age almost completely lost the essential point of the Law and the Gospel and gave up the Apostolic teaching. For it did not keep the natural meaning in the words ‘letter,’ ‘spirit,’ ‘righteousness,’ ‘faith.’ And having lost the peculiar nature of words

in Luther’s lives
Hans Peter Broedel

an unholy bargain with the devil, but they had been tricked into doing so, and were, in TMM5 8/30/03 110 5:40 PM Page 110 THE MALLEUS MALEFICARUM any case, less than fully culpable by reason of their age, poverty, gross ignorance, and failing mental health. Despite their differences, Alphonso de Spina and Nicholas of Cusa both accepted an essentially conservative and traditional view of witchcraft, in which the experiences of women who followed the bonae res were basically imaginary. For others, this kind of faith in ecclesiastical tradition seemed no longer

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
Hans Peter Broedel

less easily dissuaded from them.19 Jean Gerson argued that similar mental weaknesses made “old women, girls and boys, and the slow-witted more prone to observing and believing such superstitions.”20 Nider in his Praeceptorium elaborated upon this theme, and gave what would become the three canonical reasons for women’s inclination to superstitious practices. First, women were simply more credulous than men, and since false and erroneous faith was a principal aim of the devil, he mercilessly exploited this weakness. Second, women were especially vulnerable to

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
Hans Peter Broedel

TMM6 8/30/03 5:37 PM Page 122 6 Witchcraft: the formation of belief – part two In the previous chapter we examined how motifs drawn from traditional beliefs about spectral night-traveling women informed the construction of learned witch categories in the late Middle Ages. Although the precise manner in which these motifs were utilized differed between authorities, two general mental habits set off fifteenth-century witch-theorists from earlier writers. First, they elided the distinctions between previously discrete sets of beliefs to create a substantially

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
Feijoo versus the ‘falsely possessed’ in eighteenth-century Spain
María Tausiet

with the deceiver but also with the deceived’.5 He took for granted that the majority of those who read his writings, in other words the vulgo, among whom he includes ‘a great many indiscreet priests’, would be against his thesis. Not for nothing are the so-called vulgo depicted by the Benedictine as comprising a class of people mentally rather than socially defined, who did not use their intelligence, who rejected reflection, and guided by emotion ended up behaving like madmen.6 In spite of this, the author quixotically presented his revelations to 46 Beyond the

in Beyond the witch trials