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Learning from the case of Kosovo

to have gone towards funding the armed resistance in Kosovo (Hislope, 2002: 38; Makarenko, 2004). Of course, historically, Kosovo rests in the middle of a drugs trading route that sees drug travel from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkey before making their way across the Balkans and into Western Europe (Stefavnova, 2004). The smuggling of drugs through this region cannot be seen simply as a function of the wars and the actions of the KLA. Besides these illicit forms of funding, the war effort was also largely supported through donations from the Albanian Diaspora

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)

already noted, Turkey’s desire to keep its relations with Russia on an even keel acted as a constant constraint on its policies, and was one of the reasons it failed to become the dominant power in the region. Russia, though forced to surrender its Asian empire, following the Soviet Union’s disintegration, did not abandon its interest in the area. For one thing, Moscow could not afford to ignore any strategic, economic or even religious developments, in what it termed its “near abroad,” that might spill over and have a negative effect on Russia. For another, Moscow

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)

. Minatom and Gosatomnadzor have their representations in the region, but the ‘balance of power’ between federal and regional offices differs from what we found in fisheries management. While important decisions in fisheries management 128 International environmental agreements in Russia are made by federal agencies located in the region and normally sanctioned by the federal offices, the latter seem to have a greater thrust in the nuclear safety area or, put differently, the agencies located in the region are less autonomous in nuclear safety issues than in fisheries

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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Liberal Party, Jeremy Thorpe, about the possibility of forming a coalition government. Following the inability of the two sides to reach an agreement, Heath was forced to resign as prime minister, and for the third time in a decade Harold Wilson was in office.3 For scholars studying US−UK relations, three distinct interpretations of Wilson’s final governments have emerged. One interpretation suggests that the US−UK relationship continued to deteriorate in its relevance largely because 04_Strained_partnership_128-174.indd 128 06/11/2013 13:50 129 Wilson returns of

in A strained partnership?

Portal agreed that the Slavs probably originated from the Carpathian region but did not give any credence to the idea that separate groups took different routes to the Balkans.16 However, Ferdinand Schevill offered an entirely different geographical starting point for the Slavs – the marshes of Ukraine.17 Given these disagreements, we cannot simply accept that the Croats were either an indistinguishable Slavic group intermingled with the rest or (if we accept Vladovich’s account) an identifiable group that took an alternative route to the Balkans. Furthermore, several

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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wearing, EDKINS 9781526119032 PRINT.indd 127 22/02/2019 08:34 128 change and the politics of certainty some almost worn out. As he describes it: ‘For some reason I focussed on the marching shoes and I realised how worn out they were and I began to imagine how far these people had walked.’15 He spoke to a couple of mothers he knew, and used their shoes to explore the idea he had.16 Text from the relative would be engraved on the sole of the shoe. The letters would be reversed. The sole would then be covered in ink using a roller, and then pressed carefully onto a

in Change and the politics of certainty

if Britain cut its projected Public Sector Borrowing Requirement (PSBR) for the financial years 1976–77, 1977–78 and 1978– 79. The IMF wanted to see a reduction in the UK’s PSBR from a projected £12 billion to a figure in the region of £9 billion by FY 1978–79. This policy was designed to deflate the British economy and restore borrowing to levels that would be deemed ‘credible’ by international markets.6 Callaghan, however, believed the IMF’s proposed PSBR reduction was too high because it would lead to increased unemployment and, moreover, fail to resolve the

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)

identification. To start with, there is a case to be made why existing theories of integration, even when taken in a complementary manner, fall short of capturing the dominant character of the relationship between the region (Union) and the subunits (states/substate system/citizens). A first attempt to answer this question is that Mitrany’s functionalism, Haas’ revised version of it (what was conveniently labelled as ‘neofunctionalism’) and the various federalist-inspired approaches to European integration, ranging from the American model of ‘dual federalism’ to the ‘co

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Language, education and the Catholic Church

Vojvodina. Here, they passed a resolution calling for the publication of a common Serbo-Croatian/Croato-Serbian dictionary. The Novi Sad Agreement, which was passed under considerable pressure from the regime in Belgrade, was meant to determine the rules under which a common language for Croats and Serbs could be formulated. These rules were to be based upon the ‡tokavian dialect spoken throughout Serbia and parts of Croatia (excluding the Zagreb region, Istria and Dalmatia).10 For many Croatian writers, the endeavour to create a common language for the Southern Slavs

in The formation of Croatian national identity
An assessment of EU development aid policies

and another in Washington . . . close coordination with the Bank will be vital. Indeed the quickest and most effective way to support recipients’ macroeconomic reforms is to work alongside the Bank’ (Patten, 1988). Even at the level of policy statements and the wording of the Convention there were a number of caveats. The original Council declaration, while making claims to a flexible and pragmatic route, nevertheless committed the Community to ensure ‘effective coordination between the Community, on the one hand, and the World Bank and the IMF, which play a leading

in EU development cooperation