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Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

French public and, by the same token, to enhance his waning popularity at home, especially with the clerical party and Catholic public opinion, which was incensed by his recent stance in support of Italian unification (one of the outcomes being the dissolution of the Papal States). 71 More generally, Syria and Lebanon were at the centre of an arc between the British route to India and the Straits route to the Black Sea, a region of French–British rivalry for

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

incorporated into the Indian Ocean zone –​through extensive imperial connections between multiple centres. The wind patterns of the Atlantic favoured a conjunction of the two oceans. Ships drawn to the Roaring Forties and across the South Atlantic would eventually pass the southern tip of Africa and find a route to the Indian Ocean. The conjunction linked the Eurasian land mass to a hemisphere not occupied by the Western Atlantic powers. Through inter-​civilisational engagement across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, a number of the early modernities discussed in

in Debating civilisations
Anti-Islam and anti-Muslim sentiments
Hilary Pilkington

the foundation for theoretical development and the definition of Islamophobia. This, he argues, means the features of ‘closed’ views are equated to the features of Islamophobia (2010: 69). The ‘closed– open’ binary establishes a series of dualisms that appear to reinforce many of the ‘closed views’ themselves and, since ‘closed’ and ‘open’ are largely interchangeable with ‘negative’ and ‘positive’, it follows that the report appears to suggest that 128 Loud and proud: passion and politics in the EDL Islam be both understood and engaged with ‘openly’ or

in Loud and proud