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Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

incorporated into the Indian Ocean zone –​through extensive imperial connections between multiple centres. The wind patterns of the Atlantic favoured a conjunction of the two oceans. Ships drawn to the Roaring Forties and across the South Atlantic would eventually pass the southern tip of Africa and find a route to the Indian Ocean. The conjunction linked the Eurasian land mass to a hemisphere not occupied by the Western Atlantic powers. Through inter-​civilisational engagement across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, a number of the early modernities discussed in

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis and Kostas Ifantis

identification. To start with, there is a case to be made why existing theories of integration, even when taken in a complementary manner, fall short of capturing the dominant character of the relationship between the region (Union) and the subunits (states/substate system/citizens). A first attempt to answer this question is that Mitrany’s functionalism, Haas’ revised version of it (what was conveniently labelled as ‘neofunctionalism’) and the various federalist-inspired approaches to European integration, ranging from the American model of ‘dual federalism’ to the ‘co

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

to have gone towards funding the armed resistance in Kosovo (Hislope, 2002: 38; Makarenko, 2004). Of course, historically, Kosovo rests in the middle of a drugs trading route that sees drug travel from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkey before making their way across the Balkans and into Western Europe (Stefavnova, 2004). The smuggling of drugs through this region cannot be seen simply as a function of the wars and the actions of the KLA. Besides these illicit forms of funding, the war effort was also largely supported through donations from the Albanian Diaspora

in Building a peace economy?