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Mirrors of French ideals?

Lemarie praised the devotion of the bishop of Saint-Malo, Guillaume Le Gouverneur, to Borromeo and hailed his defence of ecclesiastical privileges in the hope of spurring him to still greater efforts.46 So too had Ambrose and Thomas of Canterbury conserved the spiritual jurisdiction of the church with constant vigilance; like them, all bishops should know that, in fulfilling the demands of their vocation, they might face suffering, torture and, ultimately, a horrific death. Their office was ‘a true apprenticeship of martyrdom’, which might bring, at any moment, ‘the

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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French clerical reformers and episcopal status

bishop and a priest: both would have the power of eucharistic consecration, while the bishop’s superiority would be just a result of the jurisdictional authority to which his office entitled him. Olier’s view followed the later doctrine of Thomas Aquinas which proposed a distinction of order as well as of jurisdiction between priesthood and episcopate, while maintaining their sacramental unity. Of course, Aquinas was not the definitive voice of authority within the Catholic church; it was far more important that the Council of Trent had adopted just this view in its

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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bishops still had to endure when he addressed the Assembly of Clergy. All those bishops then in Paris received a personal invitation to hear him applaud the example of Thomas à Beckett, who had not hesitated to advise his king of the abuses committed in his name or to impress upon him the fact that he would one day be forced to render account to God for his administration. Dony urged his fellow bishops to follow the saint’s chap 5 22/3/04 156 12:53 pm Page 156 FATHERS, PASTORS AND KINGS example, in ‘[speaking] efficaciously to the King and [awakening] his

in Fathers, pastors and kings

tradition to emphasize diabolic responsibility for misfortune at the expense of the divine.18 To take one example, the Dominican preacher Thomas of Cantimpré wrote in 1258 that during a demonically inspired storm, the vines of a notorious usurer were left intact, and that aerial demons were even heard to cry out, “Cave, cave,” when an overzealous member of their company approached his lands too closely.19 Thomas intended, of course, to illustrate that material prosperity is no sure indication of spiritual merit as well as the diabolic nature of usury, but in the process

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft

confer the sacraments of ordination and confirmation.42 Here, the Council plumped for the dominant scholastic distinction between episcopal order (bishops’ power to confer order and to confirm) and jurisdiction (their power to govern). As the theology of priesthood had evolved during the medieval period, leading theologians, including such luminaries as Peter Lombard and Thomas Aquinas, had argued just this question.43 Aquinas concluded it to his satisfaction by positing distinctions of order and of jurisdiction between priest and bishop, while concurrently maintaining

in Fathers, pastors and kings

–1914 (Paris, 1995); Thomas Kselman, Miracles and Prophecies in Nineteenth-Century France (New Brunswick, 1983); idem, Death and the Afterlife in Modern France (Princeton, 1993); B. Plongeron (ed.), La religion populaire: Approches historiques (Paris, 1976); M. Bouteiller, Médicine populaire d’hier et d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1966); Jacques Léonard, ‘Les guérisseurs en France au XIXe siècle’, Revue d

in Witchcraft Continued