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Managing diabetes, managing medicine

. Wood, ‘Policy emergence and policy convergence: the case of “Scientific-Bureaucratic Medicine” in the United States and United Kingdom’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations , 4:1 (2002), 1–21; S. Harrison and W. I. U. Ahmad, ‘Medical autonomy and the UK state 1975 to 2025’, Sociology , 34:1 (2000), 129–46; Flynn, ‘Clinical governance and governmentality’, pp. 155–6, 159–60; Kirkpatrick et al., The New Managerialism . 22 R. Klein, ‘The crises of the welfare states’, in R. Cooter and J. Pickstone (eds.), Medicine in the

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
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, global health agencies (such as the WHO), and growing policy communities also help to explain similarities. 38 Yet the character of management in different countries also reflects differences in the structures, politics, and cultures of medicine across nation-states. In the USA, for instance, multiple groups contributed to concerns about costs of healthcare in general, and chronic disease in particular. Hospitals, organised medicine, politicians, and federal and state government bodies were not the only actors in US health policy. Post

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

provision and professional self-management sat at the heart of all such activities, with the hope that self-regulation could bring expenditure under greater control. Neoliberalism, welfare reform, and the management of British medicine Political concerns about the relationship between clinical decision-making and resource use continued after the election of Margaret Thatcher in 1979. Comments from parliamentary select committees during this period indicate that traditional fiscal conservatives and social democrats were united in

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

, it had recalled, were devised to facilitate comparison between health districts, but ‘Scottish health boards were too diverse for comparison between areas’. Thus the authors suggested that longitudinal measures for ‘all Scotland’ would be preferable, and ‘access measures for the process of care’ could allow for intra-area comparison. As for the metrics to be chosen, the report drew on American suggestions, with the United States National Diabetes Advisory Board proposing ‘five major indicators of the quality of care’: visual impairment, perinatal morbidity and

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

Health and the Risk Factor: A History of An Uneven Medical Revolution (New York: University of Rochester Press, 2003). 115 G. M. Oppenheimer, ‘Profiling risk: the emergence of coronary heart disease epidemiology in the United States (1947–70)’, International Journal of Epidemiology , 35:3 (2006), 720–30. 116 Porter, ‘From Social Structure to Social Behaviour’; Elliot, ‘The prevention of illness in middle age’, p. 318. 117 Berridge, ‘Medicine and the public’; J. Hand, ‘“Tucking your tummy in

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison , trans. A. Sheridan (London: Penguin, 1991 [1975]). 3 S. Timmermanns and M. Berg, The Gold Standard: The Challenge of Evidence-Based Medicine and Standardization in Health Care (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003). 4 H. Marks, The Progress of the Experiment: Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, 1900–1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). See also discussions of ‘networks’ and ‘systems’ in W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes, and T

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

. 35 Pike, ‘A general practitioner looks at diabetes’, p. 169. 36 Ibid., p. 168. 37 Ibid., pp. 167–8. 38 Ibid., p. 165. On associative prediction vs causation: G. M. Oppenheimer, ‘Profiling risk: the emergence of coronary heart disease epidemiology in the United States (1947–70)’, International Journal of Epidemiology , 35:3 (2006), 720–30, esp. pp. 725–7. 39 On Darbishire House: M. Perry, ‘Academic general practice in Manchester under the early National Health

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
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-sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Hastings Center and the Royal Society of Medicine.28 During a planning meeting, members of the British organising committee, which included Gordon Dunstan and Sir Douglas Black, had suggested that an ‘interesting and fruitful’ approach would be to look at ‘topics that reveal differences between 260 The making of British bioethics the UK and USA’.29 Staff at the Hastings Center claimed that discussing the ‘marked differences’ between Britain and the United States would ‘foster an understanding and mutual appreciation for

in The making of British bioethics

United States of America into the war in April 1917, although numerous trained American nurses offered their services to the French and Belgian Red Cross Societies and were engaged in ‘front-line nursing’ from 1914 onwards, and a small number of ‘official’ American units also travelled to France. Members of the army nursing corps of allied nations saw themselves as belonging to elite units. Trained in the most prestigious nursing schools of their day, they carried with them a remarkable degree of confidence and self-belief, and their achievements were eagerly reported

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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Vaccine policy and production in Japan

virtually unmodified (Table 8.1 ). Table 8.1 Vaccine schedules in Japan and the United States, 2011 Japan United States Diphtheria Diphtheria Pertussis Pertussis Tetanus Tetanus Polio (OPV) Polio (IPV) Measles Measles Rubella (offered only to adolescent girls before 1994) Mumps Japanese encephalitis Rubella BCG Hepatitis B

in The politics of vaccination