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transboundary pollutants; and opening up new areas for cooperation, such as the recent Central Arctic Ocean fisheries treaty. The continued engagement of the United States and Russia in regional politics as both active and ‘resting’ great powers is, in other words, essential for maintaining and expanding cooperation. Global politics today is marked by enduring, seemingly unresolvable strife and suffering in regional wars and proxy wars; a growing preoccupation with putting domestic politics ‘first’; and a populist backlash against expert knowledge, including against the

in Arctic governance

state without reference to this defining feature. ‘External sovereignty’ is used to describe two elements. Firstly, states have legal equality in international society. Wealthy or poor, strong or weak, every sovereign state is legally equal in international law. The United States and Mauritius are both sovereign states, even though clearly one has a greater range of policy options in domestic and

in Understanding political ideas and movements

devoted to broader geopolitical tension also matches the United States’ official reports and strategies relating to the Arctic. Though the USA ranked sovereignty and security as its top priority in its 2013 strategy, it characterised the Arctic region as ‘free of conflict’ and elaborated on the need ‘to seek to work with other states and Arctic entities to advance common objectives in the Arctic region in a manner that protects Arctic states’ (Obama, 2013: 6, 10). Here, we see various kinds of diplomatic work in framing the region as cooperative, from oblique reference

in Arctic governance

: membership in a polity is a necessary condition for human autonomy and well-being” (p. 40). Defined narrowly as participation in democratic self-government at the level of states, this seems both empirically doubtful and possibly condescending to the many individuals who live self-fulfilled, post-political lives. In the United States, for example, many people have checked themselves out of the political process, and for good reason. The level of

in Democratic inclusion
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Theorising Arctic hierarchies

of public goods were provided by the United States and the Soviet Union in their respective spheres of influence. In the post-​ Cold War period, the question of whether the USA can act as a fully global hegemon in delivering global public goods is actively debated. At the same time, US dominance in the international system has not been replaced by another power, however unevenly enacted or contested this American hegemonic position has become. This incomplete/​partial hegemony thus ties back into broader debates discussed in the introduction to this volume about

in Arctic governance
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A pluralist theory of citizenship

citizenship status and voting rights. These are two different questions, the answers to which need not be derived from the same inclusion principle. The distinction is clearly drawn in section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United

in Democratic inclusion
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composed of a people that share certain characteristics and have a sense of belonging to that nation. So powerful is the concept of nations as fundamental units of human organisation that international organisations rarely talk of them as being made up of states, which is what they are, and they are usually described in such terms as the League of Nations and the United Nations

in Understanding political ideas and movements

more fulsome discourse of civilisations that Duara points to. Concerns over the ‘progress’ of Japanese civilisation that circulated in the public writings of Tokutomi were shared by the author of the next perspective –​ heterodox Protestant Uchimura Kanzo. Some comparison of the two can help clarify the power of Uchimura’s point of view. Both had negative experiences of life in the United States and were focused on trans-​Pacific relations. Japan’s seizure of Taiwan and Korea and the annexation of Samoa, Guam and the Philippines by the United States enlarged the

in Debating civilisations
New stories on rafted ice

from the nearby oil and gas development at Prudhoe Bay failed. As attention to the whales’ plight and the villagers’ efforts grew, national resources were brought in to cope, with whale biologists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency lending assistance. Eventually, the issue went international. The United States State Department contacted the Soviet Union to secure the cooperation of two icebreakers stationed in the Russian Far East –​the Admiral Makarov and the Vladimir Arseniev. Over the course of several days, Soviet icebreakers rammed the tough ridge

in Arctic governance
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

, inter-​imperial competition and ‘noble savage’ representation took the place of inter-​cultural curiosity. For the second new-​ world zone, Western colonialism was going to be a multinational affair that included Russians and Germans as late imperialists, as well as the United States in its colonial experiments. The British and French entered as the most expansive and experienced imperial powers. Imperial integration of the Pacific and linkages with other world regions only began in the late eighteenth century, even though voyages of exploration had begun 250 years

in Debating civilisations