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From the ‘militant’ to an ‘immunised’ route?

policy of response. An attempt is made to find the ‘golden path’, that is, a middle way which reconciles between the state’s duty of and right to self-protection in the face of its adversaries, on the one hand, and avoidance of a descent into counteractive strategies deviating from democratically legal and moral frameworks, on the other. Then, in the second part of the chapter, the Israeli response is viewed in a comparative perspective with policies of other democracies, specifically, the United States and Germany. Drawing a comparison with these countries will help

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
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The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis

Unlike many countries which have undergone manifestations of political radicalism and ideological insurgence, Israel’s nature as an ‘ethnic democracy’ and the Jewish public’s sweeping consolidation around the Jewish national sentiment also shaped and delimited, to a certain degree, the features of Jewish political extremism and violence in the country. Even in the early days following the establishing of the State, and despite profound ideological differences, it was clear that all political currents fighting for the State’s independence were united in the belief that

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations

force as well. Appointing the Shabak as the institution responsible for contending with these incidents is clearly indicative of the State’s attempt to adhere to some sort of framework within the ‘rule of law’ – yet not in the liberal perception of this notion. Unlike the Israeli police force, the legal status of the Shabak is indeterminate. 25 Furthermore, unlike in other countries such as the United Kingdom, where there is a system of robust public control over the secret services, 26 in Israel there is a lack both of the legislation

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Open Access (free)
Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition

and English experience, it was not the political or theological ramifications of the Reformation or conflict between the two great European confessions which was central to developments. Rather it was the seemingly narrower and local context of particular Church–state conflict within Italian sovereign states which led to a politicization of religion in a manner which the Reformation and its seventeenth-century aftermath did not generate within the peninsula. Unsurprisingly, the political vocabulary of revolt witnessed in France also emerged in Italian religious

in The Enlightenment and religion

attempt to delineate the boundaries of the concept. The main objective of the ‘civil society’, according to many scholars, derives from the assumption that groups and organisations included beneath its banner have a central role in bolstering the democratic process. The source of this assumption can be found in de Tocqueville’s writings, according to which voluntary associations in the United States at the turn of the nineteenth century were perceived as the basis of democratic life. 3 In recent years, this view has gained much support in the works of Robert Putnam

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The parliamentary arena

establishing a Jewish theocracy. The advocate of such a programme was Kach, led by Rabbi Meir Kahane. Kach and Israeli politics – the early years Meir Kahane, leader of the militant Jewish Defence League in the United States, emigrated to Israel in September of 1971 and brought with him a new rhetoric and violent political style previously unknown to Israeli society or political life. Upon his arrival in Israel he declared that it was not his intention to become involved in Israeli politics, but rather that he would like to

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The social sphere

approach, the school civics’ curriculum should aim to generate in learners the basics of the critical assessment of political alternatives. 7 Research conducted in the last decade has shown that some of the ideas discussed by Levinson have already been taken up by many liberal democracies and included in their curricula. 8 Several countries, such as the United States 9 and, at a later stage, Denmark and Germany, 10 have expanded the role of civic studies from a reduced procedural perspective, which considers the structures and functions of

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
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it was a voluntary contribution rather than a fixed obligation. The clergy were now wrong footed, for the precedent was set: it was not a question of whether they would give financial aid but of how much they would have to offer. That significantly reduced their ability to use the contribution as a bargaining tactic.11 The bishops were not always able to bargain successfully with the crown, and it was certainly not an easy task to police every effort by the state’s representatives to usurp their jurisdictional power. To protect ecclesiastical rights against

in Fathers, pastors and kings

Historians, religion and the historical record 2 Historians, religion and the historical record The origins of Enlightenment anticlericalism The politico-religious convulsions across Europe from the Reformation until the eighteenth century were numerous and bloody. The resulting religious divisions were enshrined in confessional states, but, as with the cases of Protestant England and Catholic France, religious minorities remained persecuted and disabled. It would have been truly miraculous if many Christians had not wearied of the constant conflict between

in The Enlightenment and religion
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government of individual bishops. Since the episcopal deputies spoke for the episcopate, the opinion of the majority had to be accepted by all bishops as well as by those conclusion 22/3/04 12:55 pm CONCLUSION Page 219 219 clergy below them in ecclesiastical rank. That assumption was heavily based on an understanding of the episcopate as a united corps within the church, a collegial group with its own unique responsibilities and privileges. Jansenism provided a context and reason for the increasing prominence of the role of bishops as judges of doctrinal questions

in Fathers, pastors and kings