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Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

example of this approach is the aerial spraying of coca crops as part of Plan Colombia, a US-sponsored assistance strategy aimed in part at eradicating drug production in Colombia. While this programme can be seen primarily as an attempt by the US to decrease the amount of cocaine flowing into the United States (and the crime associated 15 4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 16 Building a peace economy? with this trade), it is also considered to be a means by which actors can diminish the power of the drug cartels, known to be linked to

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

per 1,000 inhabitants. Compare this situation to Haiti where the ratios were 4:1,000 in terms of military presence and 0.13:1,000 in terms of police presence, or Sierra Leone where the ratios are 3:1,000 and 0.02:1,000 respectively (Law, 2006a: 117 referring to Dobbins et al., 2003). Of course the amount of resources does not directly translate into success; in 2004 ‘the amount spent by the United States in Iraq was equal to that being spent in all 17 on-going UN operations combined, without any noticeable progress in rebuilding the country’s security forces’ (Law

in Building a peace economy?
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

(ICG,1999c; interview with international staff, 2006). The bombardment ended on 10 June after a negotiated withdrawal of Serbian forces from the territory. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 left a United Nations administration (the United Nations Mission in Kosovo – UNMIK) in control of Kosovo pending the resolution of final status. Over 42,000 NATO troops formed a peacekeeping force (KFOR). Serbia, de jure, retained its sovereignty over the territory and thus, technically, Kosovo remained part of the Serbian state. The growth of Kosovo’s war economy Beginning with

in Building a peace economy?
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

economic policy and forms the foundation of economic reforms imposed on developing and conflict-affected states by institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Beginning in the late 1970s, this ideological discourse was operationalised by the above institutions in what came to be known as the Washington Consensus. Based on neo-liberal principles, policies of fiscal discipline, liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation were prescribed to developing and developed nations alike (Krogstad, 2007). The failure of this consensus to substantively

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

(in some cases through their participation in the war economy), however, are able to meet the requisite standards. All of this activity and focus on the management of Kosovo’s borders, its trade and thus its economy, points to a wider tendency within the international development-security mission. The attempts to control the movement of goods and people across this small territory illustrate ‘increasing efforts by the United States, its allies and the international organisations it dominates to micromanage the world system’ (Heyman, 2004: 322). Indeed, control of

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Elana Wilson Rowe

transboundary pollutants; and opening up new areas for cooperation, such as the recent Central Arctic Ocean fisheries treaty. The continued engagement of the United States and Russia in regional politics as both active and ‘resting’ great powers is, in other words, essential for maintaining and expanding cooperation. Global politics today is marked by enduring, seemingly unresolvable strife and suffering in regional wars and proxy wars; a growing preoccupation with putting domestic politics ‘first’; and a populist backlash against expert knowledge, including against the

in Arctic governance
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

state without reference to this defining feature. ‘External sovereignty’ is used to describe two elements. Firstly, states have legal equality in international society. Wealthy or poor, strong or weak, every sovereign state is legally equal in international law. The United States and Mauritius are both sovereign states, even though clearly one has a greater range of policy options in domestic and

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Elana Wilson Rowe

devoted to broader geopolitical tension also matches the United States’ official reports and strategies relating to the Arctic. Though the USA ranked sovereignty and security as its top priority in its 2013 strategy, it characterised the Arctic region as ‘free of conflict’ and elaborated on the need ‘to seek to work with other states and Arctic entities to advance common objectives in the Arctic region in a manner that protects Arctic states’ (Obama, 2013: 6, 10). Here, we see various kinds of diplomatic work in framing the region as cooperative, from oblique reference

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies
Elana Wilson Rowe

of public goods were provided by the United States and the Soviet Union in their respective spheres of influence. In the post-​ Cold War period, the question of whether the USA can act as a fully global hegemon in delivering global public goods is actively debated. At the same time, US dominance in the international system has not been replaced by another power, however unevenly enacted or contested this American hegemonic position has become. This incomplete/​partial hegemony thus ties back into broader debates discussed in the introduction to this volume about

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

composed of a people that share certain characteristics and have a sense of belonging to that nation. So powerful is the concept of nations as fundamental units of human organisation that international organisations rarely talk of them as being made up of states, which is what they are, and they are usually described in such terms as the League of Nations and the United Nations

in Understanding political ideas and movements