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Jeremy C.A. Smith

more fulsome discourse of civilisations that Duara points to. Concerns over the ‘progress’ of Japanese civilisation that circulated in the public writings of Tokutomi were shared by the author of the next perspective –​ heterodox Protestant Uchimura Kanzo. Some comparison of the two can help clarify the power of Uchimura’s point of view. Both had negative experiences of life in the United States and were focused on trans-​Pacific relations. Japan’s seizure of Taiwan and Korea and the annexation of Samoa, Guam and the Philippines by the United States enlarged the

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory
Jeremy C.A. Smith

, inter-​imperial competition and ‘noble savage’ representation took the place of inter-​cultural curiosity. For the second new-​ world zone, Western colonialism was going to be a multinational affair that included Russians and Germans as late imperialists, as well as the United States in its colonial experiments. The British and French entered as the most expansive and experienced imperial powers. Imperial integration of the Pacific and linkages with other world regions only began in the late eighteenth century, even though voyages of exploration had begun 250 years

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

unthreatening treaty with the British. Steering a fine strategic line between French and British interests in East Africa, the Omani prince-​merchant Sa’id bin Sultan Al Bu Sa’idi (1807–​56) was able to sustain an increasingly independent sphere of Omani power and influence in the Indian Ocean. Oman could establish trade relations with the United States, France and Portugal while remaining faithful to the treaty with Britain. Sa’id bin Sultan moved his capital to Zanzibar and from there opened up the extensive and lucrative clove trade. Exposure to European imperial rivalries

in Debating civilisations
Jürgen Habermas and the European left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

, respect for treaties, non-intervention in the internal affairs of other peoples, agreed norms regulating the conduct of war – but emphasised the need to elaborate international law in accordance with more cosmopolitan principles: states are bound to honour human rights; the principle of non-intervention may be suspended in the case of serious atrocities; and the authority of international organisations such as the United Nations must be upheld. Habermas defended

in Antisemitism and the left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

itself that does not provoke ideologically driven responses. Suffice to say that in Israel we find a state that was brought into being in reaction to the near-destruction of those designated Jews, authorised by the international community through the United Nations, confronted by the hostility of other newly independent states which defined themselves as ‘Arab’ and which denied the legitimacy of a ‘Jewish’ state. Its population was swollen by

in Antisemitism and the left
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

cataclysmic in its early months, producing unprecedented transfers of Muslim, Sikh and Hindu refugees. In the fifth period, post-​colonial emigration to the metropoles of the former empires turned monochrome white societies 85 Inter-civilisational engagement 85 into multi-​ethnic ones. Return migration brought former imperial servants back. For example, the aftermath of the Algerian War brought imperial cadre back to France as the starting point of France’s most spectacular wave of post-​ colonial migration. Canada and the United States scrapped race-​based restrictions

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
The oddity of democracy
Rodney Barker

further consequences of its choice, of parties successful or policies implemented. Voting is much more than a rational purchase, as the civil rights movement in the United States dramatically demonstrated, when to cast a vote, whether or not that vote influenced a final result, was an assertion of citizen right and citizen identity. 3 Every ballot cast is a component of the democratic identity of the voter and of the whole polity. Were voting no more than a calculated pursuit of material advantage, or of any advantage at all consequent on the victory of a particular

in Cultivating political and public identity
Jeremy C.A. Smith

more forceful diversification of worldly articulations than Robertson allows for. Globality as consciousness looks more like a shifting terrain of different projects of globalisation that continue to imbue places with special meaning. Europe, the United States and Japan are three large projects with which to begin (Inglis, 2010). Robertson is not unaware of this, as evidenced in his elaboration of Japanese globality (Robertson, 58 58 Debating civilisations 1992: 85–​96). But the world appears, in the final instance, a received singular order for him, not one made

in Debating civilisations
Rodney Barker

church was enough to indicate to them the invalidity of his entire theological and organisational claims. 5 When in 1670 the archbishop of Mexico failed to lower the train of his robe in the presence of the viceroy, the gesture was deemed to threaten and was intended to threaten viceregal authority and that of the Spanish colonial regime. 6 In 2012 the reported burning of copies of the Koran by United States troops led to riots and death in Afghanistan. 7 During the French Revolution the allegation that royalist troops had trampled on tricolour cockades was a

in Cultivating political and public identity
Jeremy C.A. Smith

the United States assumed leadership of the West, the burden of social scientific knowledge of new Third World societies was claimed for American modernisation analysis and made a policy priority of a succession of US governments from Truman through to Johnson. Large research grants from public funding bodies and private philanthropic foundations buttressed the development of modernisation studies led by Talcott Parsons, Edward Shils, Daniel Lerner and others. Under the influence of Parsons’ sociological programme of study of evolutionary universals, modernisation

in Debating civilisations