, transitioned from a (mainly) Promethean position to a (mainly) ecological modernist one – what we term ‘responsible golf’ – beginning in the late 1970s. The main mechanism by which ecological modernization (EM) was achieved was the adoption of evermore sophisticated – which is to say, formalized and technology-aided – forms of course development and maintenance. Systems such as IPM were adopted from the agricultural sector as a way of addressing golf’s purported dependence on chemical treatments

in The greening of golf
The case of Maghrebi Muslims in France

and by a minority of urban families despite potential penalties. But this function of putting to death and selling, that was traditionally passed down to men, seems to be fading, even during the festival of Aïd el Adha (Feast of the Sacrifice, also called Aïd el Kebir). French and European regulations have deprived the Muslim father of his prerogative as sacrificateur by ordering the killing to be delegated to a qualified slaughterer in a proper slaughterhouse. The Islamic authorities for their part insist that the ritual act represents a manifestation of obedience

in Qualities of food
Open Access (free)
Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

domination of Micronesia mitigated by patterns of conflict and campaigns for autonomy and independence. Over several decades after the Second World War, the United States exercised strategic control of the entire zone by combining aid and militarisation in the administration of trusteeships. For the United States, the strategic value of the region has been paramount. Washington has insisted on retaining its military presence to ensure linkages in 142 142 Debating civilisations its global network of bases. Continuing nuclear submarine visits have enlarged the magnitude

in Debating civilisations

on the perception that they were more effective in enabling aid to reach the poorest members of society (Bebbington and Riddell, 1997 ; Zaidi, 1999 ) and represented, more generally, ‘vehicles for “democratization” [as part of] a thriving civil society’ (Hulme and Edwards, 1997 : 6). The implications of these general trends can be seen in a number of sectors relevant to our studies. In Zambia's education sector from 1991, the

in Localizing global sport for development
The victims' struggle for recognition and recurring genocide memories in Namibia

along numerous economic benefits that Namibia receives from Germany. Put differently, Germany has been the main provider of developmental assistance to Namibia since Independence. For instance, Namibia received $188  million for the 2011–​12 period. However, it is generally felt that ‘the money that Germany gives as developmental aid to Namibia has nothing to do with reparations’.45 Speaking on behalf of the Ovaherero Traditional Authority (OTA), Bethuel Katjimune said the government-​ to-​ government negotiations had turned the genocide reparations into a public fund

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)

witnessed reports of massacres while in fact the Ottoman authorities tried to be restrained in subduing the Cretan uprising so as not to allow foreign intervention on humanitarian grounds. Apart from diplomatic support for the Greeks from Russia, great power involvement was limited to the sending of warships to gather fleeing Greek Cretans. As for 1896–98, the six European powers were requested by the Porte to curb Greek aid to yet another Cretan uprising and the powers actually

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)

the internal market in the NHS were designed to deliver efficiency savings and improve quality and choice. 20 Similarly, individuals partaking in healthy and responsible behaviours would decrease the demand on the system, aided by properly incentivised primary health care professionals to make those “correct” decisions. Vaccination was an ideal public health measure in this context. As Jennifer Stanton has argued, vaccines themselves are ‘high-demand, low-cost’ technologies, especially for common childhood diseases such as poliomyelitis or whooping cough. 21

in Vaccinating Britain
Open Access (free)
A reminder from the present

political settlement which contains the capacity to delegitimise history and wider structures of territorial disputation. The argument is made that the BA can provide the political normality needed to create a northern version of the ‘Celtic Tiger’. It is, thus, understood that the type of economic and social forces which aided the decline of ethnocentric imagining in the Republic of Ireland can be duplicated north of the border. Within this postnationalist interpretation lies the belief that rising economic tides can and will sink sectarian boats. Growth in consumption

in The end of Irish history?

of budget resources; decentralising control of budget expenditures, and, especially, revenues; acquiring special budget status; creating their own tax services . . . [and] removing their financial agencies from the control of the Russian Ministry of Finance.35 Yeltsin also sought to buy support from recalcitrant regional elites. As Tolz and Busygina note, despite the attempts undertaken since 1994 to rationalize the system of federal aid by introducing a publicised formula favouring needier regions, the system of redistribution of benefits and support apparently

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Which technologies are improved, and how?

began as early as 2000, with questions being raised about the full-body suits. At the time the regulations set by FINA stated: FINA rule SW 10.8: ‘No swimmer shall be permitted to use or wear any device that may aid his speed, buoyancy or endurance during a competition (such as webbed gloves, fins, etc). Goggles may be worn.’ (FINA, cited in Craik, 2011 , p. 73) Following the 2000 Olympic Games there was considerable debate about whether the Fastskin

in Sport and technology