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noblewomen, because the above historians are, for example, interested in the meaning of gift exchange ceremonies, or of the consent of relatives, rather than the power of women. White’s suggestions that countergifts served to memorialise T 107 noblewomen and power social status, were an aid to memory and were always exchanged to secure a gift are a useful way to consider the significance of countergifts as a guide to women’s power.7 Thus countergifts may also have had an important role in the creation of social memory, in which women had a role in commemoration of the

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Thinking, feeling, making

protect its wearer from weapons (1448–54). The sword Hrunting will aid the hero's strength and carry out a courageous deed, as it has done in the past (1455–64). Discussing this passage, Gillian Overing observes that each item is ‘imbued with the capacity to think independently about its function, and even possesses a degree of interiority’. 23 Action and intention are attributed to these artefacts: they cunnian (search, venture, explore), cunnan (know how, have the power to), secan (look for, seek out), and æfnan

in Dating Beowulf
Open Access (free)
Emotional connections to the young hero in Beowulf

–5. 19 I am indebted to Craig Davis for his insight in this analysis of nursing as feminized work in pre-Conquest culture. Davis suggested (via personal email 2 February 2017) that some men must have cared for the sick in a monastic context; the Regularis concordia does indeed direct both monks ( seruitores ) and laymen ( famulorum ) to aid monks in the infirmary; Dom Thomas Symons (ed. and trans.), Regularis concordia / the monastic agreement (London: Thomas Nelson, 1953), ch. 12, p. 64

in Dating Beowulf
A queer history

forgot sometimes that I was a foreigner. Sylvia, of course, had been adopted by them all.’  21 Through Beach and Monnier, Bryher would become acquainted with writers, artists, and thinkers including Gertrude Stein, Tristan Tzara, Man Ray, and Walter Benjamin, whose escape from Nazi Germany to Paris Bryher aided. 22 Bryher's social circle established intimacy through meals eaten together, books shared, and writings dedicated to one

in Dating Beowulf
Open Access (free)

, Hathcyn, and Hygelac emerges from his own stark memory of being a child during a time of war, and the alliterative ties that knit together Beowulf's adopted family aid in its violent disassembling. Hrethel's loving embrace (‘heold mec ond hæfde’) (2430a) turns into a ‘wearying heart’ (‘hreðre hygemeðe’) (2442a) and a heart's sorrow (‘heortan sorge’) (2463b) when one of Hrethel's sons is killed, accidentally, by another. As with the micro-narrative of Scyld, Beowulf's mention of childhood ‘survival’ introduces an ambivalence that manages complexity in terms of emotional

in Dating Beowulf
Unreadable things in Beowulf

them for the pain of their people.] This passage in fact demonstrates the failure of Heorot’s reading –​it is as a result of secret counsel (rune) but bad advice (ræd) that they seek aid from the Devil, or soul-​slayer (gast-​bona). In seeming contradiction to this passage, there are moments when Beowulf and Hrothgar do recognise that a higher power has helped them, as when Beowulf says that the ylda waldend (lord of men) granted him the sight of the sword (1661–​4) or when Hrothgar claims that God favours mankind with the gift of wisdom (1725–​ 8). God hovers

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Open Access (free)

the most intimate relationships represented within the poem's narrative as it ‘takes on a charge’ and becomes palpable precisely as intimacy in the crosshairs of divergent gender performances. As Dockray-Miller demonstrates, Beowulf maintains the normative modes of affective intimacy in his asymmetrical relationship with his young retainer Wiglaf, who, alone among Beowulf's followers, comes to his aid in the final fight with the dragon. For Wiglaf, however, tacit models of intimacy fail, and his emotional capacities and vulnerabilities outstrip those of Beowulf

in Dating Beowulf
Open Access (free)
Greeks and Saracens inGuy of Warwick

knight who will aid the city in its need. Guy hears of the siege of Constantinople through a group of merchants who have recently escaped the destruction of the Empire by the Sultan: ‘In Costentyn πe noble emperour Ernis / ∏ai han strongliche bisett, y-wis. / Castel no cite nis him non bileued, / ∏at altogider πai han to-dreued, / & for-brant, and strued, y-wis’ (A 2819–23). The merchants continue by announcing in detail the riches they have brought with them from the noble city: ‘Fowe & griis anou© lade we, / Gold and siluer, & riche stones, / ∏at vertu bere mani for

in Pulp fictions of medieval England

need my assistance, I shall not help you just as you have not helped me.’ So when the day came for the son to be stoned and hanged, he cried out in a bitter voice ‘My Lord, my Lord, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from saving me ... ?’ and he begged for his help [Matt. 27:46]. Then the father told him, ‘When I asked you to help me make man, you rebelled against me and did not come to the aid of the Lord, and so my own power availed me and I made him without you. Now you too help yourself, for I shall not come to your aid.’17 Beyond the level of

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
The wall texts of a Percy family manuscript and the Poulys Daunce of St Paul’s Cathedral

situated within architectural space across the Pardon Churchyard and the Percy estates. The manuscript versions of both works offer an alternative mode of participatory reading, in which movement aided by architectural references reconstructs what Chaganti refers to as a ‘virtual churchyard’ – and what might thus be termed in the context of the Percy wall texts the ‘virtual estate’. The virtual spaces – virtual landing sites – created through the manuscript versions of these works, however, differ markedly from the physical spaces of their architectural installation

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England