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had witnessed a rather blasé attitude towards the integration of intelligence tests and other scientific evidence as the basis for changes in government policy towards children with ‘mental defect’, the Second World War brought new suspicions about science, and in particular mistrust of claims made by eugenicists. In the interwar period, ingrained prejudice manifested itself in the

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)

the concept of autism in altering theories of social development in children. Early twentieth century evolutionary models of society generated a unique version of child development that was authenticated via social science, anthropology and political rhetoric. Theories of the ‘social instinct’ in infants and children developed alongside theories of intellectual development

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)

‘Brave New Babies’, in which he discussed ethical issues with scientists, students, members of the public and his own children. The fact that a philosopher fronted an episode of the BBC’s flagship science series again shows how bioethicists emerged as a ‘new epistemic power’ in Britain from the 1980s onwards.16 Some years later, in 2006, the Independent newspaper included John Harris in its ‘Good List’ of the ‘fifty men and women who help make the world a better place’. Like Glover, Harris was a highprofile figure and the Independent claimed that his inclusion on the

in The making of British bioethics
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vaccination at the hands of outsiders and officials, led to serious provincial opposition, as Deborah Brunton argues in her survey of public immunisation in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. 7 Christoph Gradmann and Volker Hess have shown that statistics, epidemiology and bacteriology were allied sciences closely linked in Europe to the proliferation of vaccines as vital tools for the new profession of public health. 8 Bacteriological research

in The politics of vaccination
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India

.), Anthropology and International Health: South Asian Case Studies (Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989), pp. 200–11; M. Nichter, ‘Vaccinations in the Third World: A Consideration of Community Demand’, Social Science and Medicine , 41:5 (1995), pp. 617–32. 27 Basu, The Eradication of Smallpox , pp. 112–14; P

in The politics of vaccination

’ had a huge impact on many children’s lives July 1970, the government announced that it intended to transfer responsibility for the education of all ‘severely subnormal’ children from the Department of Health to the Department of Education and Science (DES). At the same time, special educational services would have to expand to manage these new groups. This new administrative

in The metamorphosis of autism
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system. 11 It appeared that Britain, like the United States, had accepted what Jacob Heller calls “The Vaccine Narrative” – ‘We simultaneously understand vaccines as a shield against diseases, a rite of passage for children and parents, and an expression of our science, civilization and morality.’ 12 This book examines how the routine immunisation of children became the status quo in Britain after the Second World War. It tells the story of how vaccination programmes became established in the modern British welfare state, how they expanded and

in Vaccinating Britain
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

3 ‘Who’s for bioethics?’ Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s Bioethics ceased to be an ‘American trend’ during the 1980s, when growing numbers of British outsiders publicly demanded greater external involvement in the development of guidelines for medicine and biological science. Their arguments were certainly successful. By the beginning of the 1990s, when the Guardian described the growing ‘ethics industry’, supporters of this new approach were influential public figures. One of the earliest and most high profile of these supporters was the

in The making of British bioethics

situation had changed somewhat. There was still an atmosphere of economic and scientific optimism, but trust in the omnipotence of medical science was decreasing. 35 Emphasis was placed more on influenza pandemics as natural disasters and mitigation of the consequences became a priority. However, the general tone in the media was neutral, calm, and undramatic. The first international reports of the Hong Kong pandemic came

in The politics of vaccination

to encourage research within new epidemiological and statistical sciences of mental disorder was the most compelling at a time when such sciences were in their infancy. The concept of autism offered so much promise for setting these sciences straight because it was still regarded by many as a core concept within theories of child development. Just as the first autism served as an organising

in The metamorphosis of autism