organising principle for the second generation, shaping both their
internal reality and interpersonal relationships.
The parents and children often develop extreme symbiotic ties; the
parents don’t encourage the child’s autonomy, and experience the
normal process of separation and individuation in their offspring as
a threat and an acute narcissistic injury to the family.
[The] studies appeared to show that children of survivors left their
parents’ homes later than other young adults, and after they’d left
remained in close contact with their parents.
expansion of opportunities in education and work
increased women’s autonomy and independence, and single women
began to be seen as more of a threat. Accordingly, the derogatory
discourses emerged again, here too compounded in the early
twentieth century by sexological theories which proposed the harm
of celibacy, at the same time proclaiming the dangers of non-married
In Britain, probably the spinster’s best moment was in the last years of the
nineteenth century and the very early twentieth century – the time of
the ‘new woman’. Judy Little traces