Open Access (free)
Nicholas Atkin

exposed by the peculiar circumstances of wartime, especially the anomalous position of the Vichy government, which was alone in Hitler’s Europe in that it retained a sizeable measure of autonomy. It would have been much easier for the ‘forgotten French’ if their government had accompanied them into exile as did those of the Norwegians, Belgians and Poles. De Gaulle was no substitute. It would also have been easier if they had been able to set aside their love of their homeland. Throughout history, the French have generally made unhappy exiles, and the events of 1940

in The forgotten French
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

-reliant (some Labour MPs remarked that the effect of the State’s parsimony was to make students stand on their parents’ feet rather than their own, and lean on their banks for overdrafts). Students could only react to Government assaults on privileges which they had once regarded as rights, and dream of restoring a vanished golden age. Individually, students suffered from deteriorating services, grants and benefits. Collectively, they – or their elected officers – faced attacks on the autonomy of student unions, measures designed to subject them to tighter control by the

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Nico Randeraad

to calculate statistically how much money had to be deposited in the funds in order to meet every need without the fund going bankrupt. Mutual assistance was, in Engel’s view, a step towards economic autonomy and independence, the common endeavour of most people living in the nineteenth century. The only way to achieve that goal, apart from adopting the dreaded solution preferred by socialists and communists (transferring the means of production to the workers), was through credit. Mutual assistance was primarily a credit facility. Engel was most likely thinking of

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Sabine Clarke

approach to development with some long-standing laissez-faire principles. Two wider political issues made Colonial Office attempts to persuade the Caribbean colonies to follow its preferred routes to industrialisation difficult, however. The increasing political autonomy of governments in the Caribbean region meant that Britain could not merely instruct its West Indian possessions to follow its edicts. In addition, it became clear that in the post-war world, the US hoped to shape development across the Caribbean along lines that it found conducive to its own interests

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Rima D. Apple

evident similarities that underlie the histories related here. Whether the nurses came from a European culture or were recruited from the indigenous population; whether their initial impulses were adventure or patriotism or altruism; whether they saw their work as ‘civilising’ or as ‘health’; whether they worked within or outside of imperial institutions; whether they were afforded autonomy in their work or were closely supervised, they all played vital roles in the delivery of healthcare and the shaping of colonial and post-colonial relations. The authors in this

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Alison Rowlands

councillors also helped ensure that witchcraft was never zealously prosecuted in Rothenburg. One of these priorities was the councillors’ belief that the judicial autonomy of Rothenburg and its right to freedom from external interference in the exercise of its judicial power were best expressed and maintained by 208 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY quashing rather than fostering witch-trials. This idea was articulated most clearly during the trial of Hans Georg Hofmann in 1605, when jurist Friedrich Prenninger warned the council of the risk that Hofmann would complain to

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Martin D. Moore

the public sat at the heart of many scandals, and the issue greatly concerned bodies claiming to speak for patient-consumers. The emergence of these organisations during the 1960s coincided with the broader professionalisation of collective consumer voices in post-war Britain and their institutionalisation within state bodies. 11 Moreover, groups like the Patients’ Association built upon contemporaneous public demands for autonomy and political accountability. Recent research on the 1970s and 1980s, for instance, has traced the migration of accountability practices

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Nico Randeraad

the congress in Florence, was another way of conveying his ideas about local autonomy, which clashed with the centralised administrative structure of the unified state. For Correnti and Maestri, the international statistical congress presented an opportunity to actualise their interpretation of Romagnosi’s and Gioia’s ideas. Any state with a certain degree of freedom and openness should have an administrative statistics operation. Once a state had attained that level and acquired a statistical overview of the whole society, it would rise automatically to the next

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
William Muraskin

-brokers can, and regularly do, take advantage of this belief to subvert the priorities of developing world governments, national medical professional associations, local communities and millions of families. Too often, countries’ autonomy and authentic independence are the collateral damage of top-down global health. Unfortunately, this happens to a greater or less degree in most global immunisation initiatives, 11 but the most extreme and blatant loss of autonomy

in The politics of vaccination