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exposed by the peculiar circumstances of wartime, especially the anomalous position of the Vichy government, which was alone in Hitler’s Europe in that it retained a sizeable measure of autonomy. It would have been much easier for the ‘forgotten French’ if their government had accompanied them into exile as did those of the Norwegians, Belgians and Poles. De Gaulle was no substitute. It would also have been easier if they had been able to set aside their love of their homeland. Throughout history, the French have generally made unhappy exiles, and the events of 1940

in The forgotten French

-reliant (some Labour MPs remarked that the effect of the State’s parsimony was to make students stand on their parents’ feet rather than their own, and lean on their banks for overdrafts). Students could only react to Government assaults on privileges which they had once regarded as rights, and dream of restoring a vanished golden age. Individually, students suffered from deteriorating services, grants and benefits. Collectively, they – or their elected officers – faced attacks on the autonomy of student unions, measures designed to subject them to tighter control by the

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90

approach to development with some long-standing laissez-faire principles. Two wider political issues made Colonial Office attempts to persuade the Caribbean colonies to follow its preferred routes to industrialisation difficult, however. The increasing political autonomy of governments in the Caribbean region meant that Britain could not merely instruct its West Indian possessions to follow its edicts. In addition, it became clear that in the post-war world, the US hoped to shape development across the Caribbean along lines that it found conducive to its own interests

in Science at the end of empire
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evident similarities that underlie the histories related here. Whether the nurses came from a European culture or were recruited from the indigenous population; whether their initial impulses were adventure or patriotism or altruism; whether they saw their work as ‘civilising’ or as ‘health’; whether they worked within or outside of imperial institutions; whether they were afforded autonomy in their work or were closely supervised, they all played vital roles in the delivery of healthcare and the shaping of colonial and post-colonial relations. The authors in this

in Colonial caring
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councillors also helped ensure that witchcraft was never zealously prosecuted in Rothenburg. One of these priorities was the councillors’ belief that the judicial autonomy of Rothenburg and its right to freedom from external interference in the exercise of its judicial power were best expressed and maintained by 208 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY quashing rather than fostering witch-trials. This idea was articulated most clearly during the trial of Hans Georg Hofmann in 1605, when jurist Friedrich Prenninger warned the council of the risk that Hofmann would complain to

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany

the public sat at the heart of many scandals, and the issue greatly concerned bodies claiming to speak for patient-consumers. The emergence of these organisations during the 1960s coincided with the broader professionalisation of collective consumer voices in post-war Britain and their institutionalisation within state bodies. 11 Moreover, groups like the Patients’ Association built upon contemporaneous public demands for autonomy and political accountability. Recent research on the 1970s and 1980s, for instance, has traced the migration of accountability practices

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

-brokers can, and regularly do, take advantage of this belief to subvert the priorities of developing world governments, national medical professional associations, local communities and millions of families. Too often, countries’ autonomy and authentic independence are the collateral damage of top-down global health. Unfortunately, this happens to a greater or less degree in most global immunisation initiatives, 11 but the most extreme and blatant loss of autonomy

in The politics of vaccination
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challenges and remained a significant fixture in the rural economy. It has been argued that by coming through challenging circumstances, the co-operative movement became ‘nationalised’ in the sense that supporters of Irish political autonomy accepted the presence of co-operative societies in the Irish economy. This study has examined Ireland at a specific point where ideas with international antecedents became ‘greened’ and part of a distinctive Irish critique of British rule. These revolutionary years represent the moment wherein the leaders of the

in Civilising rural Ireland
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Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction

protect their womenfolk.59 Negotiating these sensitive gender boundaries, nurses on active service overseas worked to expand traditional nursing work, developed an autonomy that they had hitherto not known and brokered their place as women in a war zone, ‘the one impregnable male bastion’.60 Personal testimony and the nurses’ war This book uses a range of personal testimony material, including oral history, diaries, letters and memoirs to examine the work of nurses on active service overseas and their place within the Second World War medical services. Although nursing

in Negotiating nursing
The origins and endurance of club regulation

more on smoothing relations between practitioners in order to forestall professional conflict. Percival’s code is notable for introducing the term ‘medical ethics’, but it is perhaps more significant in another respect.16 In order to restrict the power of lay hospital governors, who physicians believed were interfering in running the Manchester Infirmary, Percival’s Medical Ethics stressed the collective autonomy of medical practitioners and the need for ‘collaborative self-regulation’.17 To Percival, ‘medical ethics’ denoted a set of professional, not public

in The making of British bioethics