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Intermediating the French subsidies to Sweden during the Thirty Years’ War
Marianne Klerk

-military system, by which large sums of money could be transferred across Europe.13 Second, Falkenberg draws a link between Amsterdam, Hamburg, and Danzig in his dealings with the French subsidies. The symbiotic relationship between these three fiscal-military hubs, as contended in this chapter, structured the payments of the French subsidies to Sweden during the Thirty Years’ War. Following the generic explanation of how bills of exchange were exchanged, we may argue that Larsson or Falkenberg served as the so-called ‘deliverer’ lending money from the ‘taker’, who in turn

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Patrick Doyle

of Irish money remained within Ireland and ‘establish a financial centre for their interests’. 43 At a later date, Ernest Blythe would describe the rationale behind its foundation as a means to prevent ‘the national struggle from being turned into a land war’. 44 However, the co-operative structure applied to this banking institution demonstrated a serious level of commitment to the pursuit of co-operative principles beyond idle talk. The Dáil appointed Lionel Smith-Gordon as the bank's managing director. Born in England and educated at Eton

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

societies played a central role in the organisation of rural work even if this occurred outside the official circuits of power. The ability of the movement to exert influence within the governmental structures of the Irish Free State reveals the significance attached to tracking the development of interstitial movements and ideologies in a larger process of nation-state building. The co-operative movement's evolution in Ireland demonstrated long social and cultural continuities. The establishment of the IAOS in the late nineteenth century led to a

in Civilising rural Ireland
Erik Thomson

. Burt, Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992). See also Ray E. Reagans and Ezra Zuckerman, ‘Why Knowledge Does Not Equal Power: The Network Redundancy Trade-off’, Industrial and Corporate Change 17 (2008), 903–944, and their ‘All in the Family: Reply to Burt, Podolny, and van de Rijt, Ban and Sarkar’, Industrial and Corporate Change 17 (2008), 979–999. 11 Ronald S. Burt, ‘Bridge Decay’, Social Networks 24 (2002), 333–363, and Mark Granovetter, Society and Economy: Framework and Principles (Cambridge, MA

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Patrick Doyle

structure … an exploitation which had been carried forward into the first half of the post-independence period’. Not until Ireland became an enthusiastic supporter of the European Community in the 1970s did this dependency start to recede. 6 The impact of nationalism, Catholicism and anti-intellectualism also counted as defining characteristics of government in Ireland. 7 However, co-operative ideas, developed through systematic economic experimentation aligned to a network of societies, also defined Irish social and political life. Co

in Civilising rural Ireland
Katherine Aron-Beller

live according to the laws of Judaism, and any legal action against them for apostasy was forbidden, even if they had previously lived as Christians.19 In reality, these Sefardim did not constitute a community or even a real presence in Modena, equal to that of Ferrara or Venice. It was the prominent Ashkenazi banking families, as the work of Federica Francesconi has demonstrated, who came to dominate the political, social and cultural life of the Jewish community.20 In 1598, Jews who had previously lived in Ferrara followed Duke Cesare d’Este, attracted to Modena

in Jews on trial
Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and Stephan Bachter

Dresdner Gelehrte Anzeiger newspaper printed articles discussing variously how to make an alcoholic spirit out of carrots, the importance of hour-glasses for pulpits in Protestant churches, and how the internal make-up of a pine-tree caterpillar was structured. A wealth of discourses materialised which may seem faintly ridiculous today, but which symbolised the Enlightenment sense of intellectual exploration, and the overwhelming urge to explain rather than just accept.22 This is well illustrated by the published exchanges between a spice trader named Tobias Conrad Hoppe

in Beyond the witch trials
Nico Randeraad

Reden, co-founder of the Zeitschrift des Vereins für deutsche Statistik, and Johannes Fallati, author of Einleitung in die Wissenschaft der Statistik (Tübingen 1843). Czoernig was a member of the right-leaning liberal majority, which supported a constitutional monarchy and a federal political structure. He was unable – and unwilling – to accomplish much in Frankfurt. After the success of the Kleindeutschland movement, the failure of the Vienna Revolution and the adoption of the ‘chartered’ constitution of March 1849, he returned to Vienna for good. Czoernig was

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
John Marriott

supportive networks and a reputation for honest trading, Quaker families were able to build substantial banking and manufacturing empires. Initially, their economic interests were so tied up with the slave trade that active involvement was inevitable, but in the course of the eighteenth century this became increasingly untenable. Unable to make the moral compromises of more orthodox churches, the Society of

in The other empire
A twenty-first century trial?
Dominic McGoldrick

banking he held senior positions in a major oil company and in one of the largest banks in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Having joined the League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1959, he held a succession of important party positions, culminating in the presidency of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), an amalgamation 179 Dominic McGoldrick of the League and the Socialist Alliance of Working People of Serbia. In 1989 he was elected President of the Presidency of the then Socialist Republic of Serbia (now the Republic of Serbia). In 1990, he was

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000