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extremely important in two respects. First and foremost, minimum wage increases functioned as a minimum standard for national sector – and occupation-level bargaining. Depending on their bargaining power and the particular conditions in their industry or occupation, unions customarily set their target increases somewhere between minimum wage increases and those achieved by the most powerful public utilities and banking federations. This customary union bargaining behaviour explains the uninterrupted fall of the Kaitz index from the early 1980s right up to the crisis years

in Making work more equal
Open Access (free)

actively blocked. Migrants were economic agents, whether as labourers, consumers or traders. Bearing and exchanging goods, however conceived, involved exchanging values, especially when exchanges have been in inter-​cultural contexts. The impact of early modern trade can be no less evident than in the example of inter-​ continental dispersion and circulation of species of flora and fauna stimulated by colonialism. But, then again the length and strength of the chains of connection that finance lubricated –​even before the rise of Italian banking –​is surprising

in Debating civilisations
Introduction and overview

play a role in constructing and sustaining inequalities, whether by lobbying for deregulatory reforms, unbundling production structures in ways that fragment work, or evading rules designed to secure fair and equal treatment and to enhance job quality. Political and economic actions are thus continuously shaping the trajectory and country specificity of work and employment inequalities in the context of shifting international patterns of production organisation, industrial relations, gender relations and demographic changes such as population ageing or migration

in Making work more equal
A blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates?

to HE graduates fell by 19 per cent since the late 2000s. Women make up 45 per cent of HE graduates and, since the ending of the state job allocation system in the 1990s, have encountered increasing sex discrimination in employment largely due to their mothering role (Cooke, 2012). While labour regulation is in place to protect female workers against unlawful discrimination, non-compliance is the norm, even within the state sector and government organisations (Cooke, 2001). For example, in the banking sector where more than half the workforce are female graduates

in Making work more equal
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’

policy in relation to different groups of workers and social agendas. The ways in which working time, pay systems and training are structured needs to be understood in terms of their contradictory effects; and while the issue of gender is just a part of this chapter the relevance of such studies is that they ask us to focus on different state or regulatory projects and how they intertwine and even contradict each other. Meardi and colleagues (2016) have similarly argued that a gender-sensitive perspective has enriched discussions on the state in labour and employment

in Making work more equal
The effects of gender, households and ethnicity

’ (Rubery, 1992, 1993). Their innovative and significant contribution was to make a much stronger link to including a parallel analysis of the sphere of social reproduction (Picchio, 1992). This referred to institutions supporting the reproduction of labour, including the family as well as other significant institutions, such as school timetables and working-time norms. The organisation of these institutions, essential to the way in which the sphere of social production was structured, affected the forms and levels of female labour market participation and the patterns

in Making work more equal
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds

transactions between civilisations are, on the whole, deeper than many of the major accounts in comparative sociology and world history have suggested. It is contended here that civilisations are made meaningful at points of intersection. Processes of creation of structures, beliefs, modes of learning, identities and forms of belonging gain impetus in the rhythms and tempos of interaction instituted by imaginaries. This is not to suggest that primarily endogenous modalities of life have no influence, but rather that those modalities are animated by cross-​fertilisation and

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)

investment funds, stakeholder firms, basic and participation incomes, informal exchange systems (whether based on currency or time) and local banking (Offe and Heinze, 1992; Offe, 1996: Ch. 7; Douthwaite, 1996; Benello et al., 1997). What this Third Sector would do is capture and harness the wealth that we already create for ourselves, and upon which productivism already depends, directing it in more socially reproductive ways (Jordan and Travers, 1998). None of this is to deny the difficulties that social democracy faces. In fact the post-industrial trilemma actually

in After the new social democracy

Irish market) ‘a hugely attractive location for foreign investors’.2 To make itself even more attractive, ‘the country has cut corporate tax rates (already among Europe’s lowest)’.3 There is even better news on the financial front: while in 1996 financial inflows and outflows totalled a meagre 1.6 per cent of the national economy, by 2000 portfolio flows in Ireland were the largest in the world, in terms of gross domestic product (GDP). Those running investment funds, corporate finance, international banking and insurance companies could, with Foreign Policy, say to

in The end of Irish history?

customerrelated activities. A different reason for not involving actual end users in the design process emerged where firms believed that they already took users into account by virtue of following certain basic ergonomic principles such as making a commitment to simplicity, providing well structured information which was easy to access, being concerned about error-friendliness, allowing self-explanation, building in help functions, etc. If they already did all this, it was sometimes regarded as sufficient to meet anything the user might want from the innovation. Undoubtedly

in Innovation by demand