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  • Manchester History of Medicine x
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Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji

As Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer point out in their classical history of ‘experimental life’, there emerged towards the end of the seventeenth century in Britain a new paradigm of experimental knowledge, which generated ‘moral certainty’ around ‘matters of fact’. The production of such experimental knowledge ‘commenced with individuals’ acts of seeing and believing, and was completed when all individuals voluntarily agreed with one another about what had been seen and ought to be believed’. 26 There were

in Progress and pathology
Martin D. Moore

potentially serious problems in the long term. For methodological and epistemological purposes, researchers were unable to produce convincing evidence about the effects of control until the 1980s and 1990s, and clinical decisions were strongly guided by a doctor's beliefs and cultural values. 39 How to weigh the certainty of the present against the possibilities of the future, however, remained a persistent concern over the century. Self-care in British diabetes management For the most

in Balancing the self
Christine E. Hallett

nursing issues of her time. The London Hospital was known for both the rigidity of its discipline and the thoroughness of its training.37 Thurstan transferred from the hospital’s preliminary training school on 29 December 1900,38 and spent the next two years acquiring a ‘Certificate of Training’ in which her work was said to be ‘satisfactory’, her conduct ‘very good’, and her sick-room cookery ‘excellent’.39 Her training clearly gave her confidence in her own abilities. Her technical writings are redolent of a sense of certainty in her knowledge and practice skills. Yet

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

conversation between memoirist Florence Farmborough and interviewer Margaret Brooks. In the first reel, Farmborough, in the high, cultured voice of a gentlewoman, tells of her childhood. Her narration is slow and deliberate, filled with certainty and self-belief, never faltering, offering what sounds almost like a recitation. She is conscious of the importance of her story, and therefore of her life. Her interview is not just a record; it is a piece of self-composure.17 Florence Farmborough retold the story of her life and nursing work several times, through memoirs and

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

have been shared by many within the military medical establishment. Such ambivalence does not appear to have had any great impact on the thinking of either Luard or Fitzgerald. Both wrote with confidence and, although at times they experienced great stress, the role ambiguities they faced do not seem to have detracted from their certainties about the value and significance of their work. Notes  1 Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale:  The Woman and Her Legend (London: Viking, 2008).  2 Mary Boykin Chesnut, Mary Chesnut’s Diary, with introduction by Catherine Clinton

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India
Niels Brimnes

claim certainty of harmlessness on the basis of the attenuation of those bacilli.’ 69 If experts considered BCG safe by 1948, they continued to disagree on its protective value. Many held that the vaccine did not provide significant protection, and its Indian opponents noted that it was not used in the USA and that the British medical authorities were only slowly adopting it. In a letter to The Hindu on 17 May 1955

in The politics of vaccination
Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media
Andrea Stöckl and Anna Smajdor

of risk and science did not originate with the Wakefield controversy – rather, Wakefield's paper exacerbated existing anxieties which can be traced back to various sources, including the BSE crisis. In the early 1990s, there was little data to establish whether BSE was linked to vCJD but the government had hastened to reassure the public by claiming to know with scientific certainty that there was no link. 21 When this was proved

in The politics of vaccination
Jane Brooks

, all of which points to a narrowing of spheres and closing of doors. However, the picture is more complex and the return to pre-­war certainties was not absolute. Carol Dyhouse argues that medical schools imposed ‘quotas’ on women, but they could not exclude them completely. Carol Dyhouse, ‘Women students and the London medical schools, 1914–39: The anatomy of a masculine culture’, Gender and History 10, 1 (1998): 111. Cambridge University reinstated ‘quotas’ for women students more generally, but from 1948 ‘conceded degrees’ to them. Carol Dyhouse, ‘Troubled

in Negotiating nursing
Bonnie Evans

This chapter explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. These led to major changes in the organisation of educational and social services. The closure of mental deficiency institutions in the wake of the 1959 Mental Health Act, the Seebohm reforms and the slow integration of all children into the education system were transforming ideas about social work. The new theory of autism and the autistic spectrum provided new models for thinking about human social development that were just as detailed and complex as those presented by the psychoanalysts. Lorna Wing's work was important because she developed a new theory of social development that held both political and scientific sway.

in The metamorphosis of autism
Bonnie Evans

precisely because it provided security and certainty to parents, bureaucrats, psychiatrists, social scientists and others who witnessed the changes brought about by the Mental Health Act 1959. Following publicity campaigns by SAC, Lotter’s epidemiological study was reported in ten national newspapers, which increased public awareness of the condition. 99 In light of the media airtime

in The metamorphosis of autism