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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Three related concepts are addressed here: rights, obligations and citizenship. We first consider the development of the concept of ‘rights’ as being intrinsic to human beings because they are human . Different interpretations of the term ‘rights’ are discussed together with some of the controversies which surround the issue at the present. Next we analyse the idea of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
David Morrison

the term ‘Third Way’ by several years. At the heart of New Labour’s Third Way is the claim that economic efficiency and social justice can be symbiotic. I argue that the articulation of a particular concept of citizenship is a crucial element of the framework that New Labour believes is necessary in order to achieve this. This argument is supported by evidence drawn from a discursive

in The Third Way and beyond
Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research
Elizabeth Hoover

11 Whose citizenship in “citizen science”? Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research Elizabeth Hoover Introduction: Citizen science After decades of traditional health and environmental studies which left many ­communities – ­especially low-­income and communities of c­olor – ­feeling disempowered, community involvement in the production of science is being heralded as necessary for the achievement of environmental justice (Shepard 2002; Cohen and Ottinger 2011; Wylie et al. 2014). Citizen science (CS) is broadly defined as

in Toxic truths
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

political agenda to promote individual entitlements that transcend national citizenship ( Moyn, 2010 ). In his inaugural address, in January 1977, President Jimmy Carter declared that ‘Our commitment to human rights must be absolute’ (quoted in Moyn, 2014: 69 ). Under the guardianship of the UN, following the UDHR in 1948, the concept of human rights had lacked prescriptive force; only once adopted by the US as an instrument of order and hegemony did it become the basis for a global movement. For many liberal commentators at the turn of the 1990s

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

moral obligation to take a political stance that citizenship imposes. 5 No such ‘opt out’ is available with regard to the boat people at sea or the migrants in Calais and other French port cities, camped as they endeavour to find a way to get to Britain. The fact that where one stands with regard to the migrants has become the defining political and moral issue in the EU makes even a semblance of humanitarian ‘neutrality’ an impossibility. And rightly so. At present, however, European relief NGOs seem to want to maintain the fiction that their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

, cosmopolitan citizens and themes relevant to their everyday lives and perceptions of citizenship. Thus, the distinction commonly drawn between ‘data rich’ governments, institutions and commercial enterprises, which collect, store and mine data, and ‘data poor’ individual citizens targeted by such efforts has been criticised for obscuring global inequities ( Ruckenstein and Schüll, 2017 ). This insight is highly relevant to humanitarian wearables, because it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

practicality prevents it). This is the same foundational commitment that animates human rights work. The humanist core to both of these forms of social practice is a similar kind of belief in the ultimate priority of moral claims made by human beings as human beings rather than as possessors of any markers of identity or citizenship. What differences exist between humanitarianism and human rights are largely sociological – the contextual specifics of the evolution of two different forms of social activism. I have argued elsewhere, for example, that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Klaus Neumann

’, Citizenship Studies , 20 : 5 , 561 – 78 . Stierl , M. ( 2018 ), ‘ A Fleet of Mediterranean Border Humanitarians ’, Antipode , 50 : 3 , 704 – 24 . Tazzioli , M. ( 2018 ), ‘ Crimes of Solidarity: Migration and Containment through Rescue ’, Radical Philosophy , 2 : 01 , 4 – 10 . Tazzioli , M. and Walters , W. ( 2019 ), ‘ Migration, Solidarity and the Limits of Europe ’, Global Discourse , 9 : 1 , 175 – 90 . Weise , K. , Kain , F. and Solms-Laubach , F. ( 2019 ), ‘ Verbrecherin oder Vorbild? ’, Bild 1 July . Zweites

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings
Authors: Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.

Open Access (free)

All political argument employs political concepts. They provide the building blocks needed to construct a case for or against a given political position. Justifications of oppression in the name of liberty are no mere products of the liberal imagination, for there are notorious historical examples of their endorsement by authoritarian political leaders. This book explores two approaches to rights: the interest-based (IB) approach, and the obligation-based or Kantian view. Both are shown to offer coherent justifications that can avoid turning all political concerns into a matter of rights. The concept of social justice emerged in both at the start of the twentieth century, and justified institutions for the democratic modification for market outcomes, on utilitarian, maximin or common good grounds. The book explores whether people do in fact have good and justifiable reasons for complying with laws that go beyond mere fear of punishment, and, if so, whether they are bound or obligated by those reasons to comply. It discusses national ties and how they are supposed to act as glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. The book also explores the link between the weakening of states and this change in criminal policies, and outlines their implications for individual rights. Theorists have used the idea of social exclusion to advocate an approach to social justice that sees increased labour-market participation as the key to equal to citizenship. The contemporary understandings of the public-private distinction and feminist critiques of these are also examined.