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Irish co-operative movement represented one of the most important movements in this national process as it aimed to revitalise Irish character with its economic interventions. In this way the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (IAOS) exercised a crucial influence over the form taken by the Irish nation-state as its leaders, organisers and members came together to mould the ‘soft wax’ of Irish society. Historians have long argued over how the political conflict between nationalists and unionists formed the dominant feature of the ‘Irish

in Civilising rural Ireland
The Third Way and the case of the Private Finance Initiative

and the length and cost of [PFI] negotiations’. Few companies are large enough to cope with the size of the contracts and the complex negotiating processes involved in PFI, and the ongoing process of acquisitions and mergers is constantly reducing that number. Even where the procurement was competitive overall, the Treasury Select Committee added, the market ‘may be too

in The Third Way and beyond
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Introduction Like all concepts in political theory, gender has a history. Unlike most of these concepts, though, the history of gender is comparatively short. The term itself originated in the nineteenth century, arising in the context of descriptive and diagnostic social sciences of human behaviour. It was only adopted into political theory, as a result of a political process of struggle, about 100

in Political concepts
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constitute such ‘possibilities’? How are they to be explored? What is the appropriate methodological line to that end? To start with, substantive progress in the field requires the transcendence of descriptive approaches about, on the one hand, the form and functions of the integrative process and, on the other, the resolution of fundamental conceptual problems confronting a discipline which has become subject to diverse interpretation. This requires, in Church’s words, ‘structured ways of understanding changing patterns of interaction’,4 free from the inherently

in Theory and reform in the European Union
New polity dynamics

reforms, paved the way for a new integrative stage, best captured by the term ‘nascent Gemeinschaft’. This is not to negate the usage of the term ‘integration’ in capturing the dynamics of the regional process, as it is still useful in the vocabulary of EU studies, insofar as it attempts to explain the joining together of previously independent entities under a new centre, whether or not federally organised. Yet, the point has been clearly made that ‘polity-formation’ is better equipped – both conceptually and operationally – to capturing the constitutive nature of

in Theory and reform in the European Union
The nature of the development-security industry

institutions tend to have hierarchical, centralised command structures where the roles and responsibilities of actors are well defined. Development institutions tend to be more flexible in nature, with decentralised decision-making processes often based on consensus and shifting roles and responsibilities (Abiew, 2003). Instead of real coordination, based on high standards of performance, coordination often becomes little more than combining the wish lists of the various actors (Natsios, 1995). A second problem, related to poor coordination, is the highly competitive nature

in Building a peace economy?
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe

actors have been assigned new meanings under the impact of uncertainty and unpredictability following the tectonic shifts in world affairs. Second is the extent to which the strategic ramifications of the new geopolitical realities and the new security challenges, although lacking a unified concept of threat, can adequately ‘provide’ rules for state interaction and, crucially, for reinforcing the ‘institutionalisation’ of security. Moreover, can process and institutions be instrumental in redefining identities and interests towards a less competitive and even non

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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Relations between the European Union and Mercosur

the US, the EU’s interest in Latin America emerged as a result of an increase in Mercosur imports, in addition to the EU seeking better access to the automobile sector in Latin America. The notion that there is a growing political competitiveness between the EU and the US is advanced by Grugel (2004). Grugel argues, ‘New regionalism thus offers the EU a chance of reaffirming its role as a global actor; in creating a relationship with Mercosur, the EU also remakes itself’ (Grugel 2004: 622). Furthermore, Grugel suggests that the EU has a very specific way of dealing

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
A managerial perspective

Taylorist mass production 8 and therefore, by association, with Keynsian demand management. Giddens’s account of the process of modernisation includes an analysis of the effect of transport and communications technology on social relations, and this is the essence of his theory of globalisation. The twentieth-century development of rapid transportation

in The Third Way and beyond

2 New directions in theory-building Treaty reform in perspective The SEA and beyond In the mid-1980s, the whole scene became dominated by claims of a ‘neofunctionalist comeback’ – modified in nature, yet easily discernible in scope.1 Processes of negative integration primarily at the market level were linked with the development of a wide range of policies covering almost all spheres of regional co-operation. Neofunctionalist ‘spillovers’ were envisaged for the transformation of a ‘Business Europe’ to a ‘People’s Europe’: the functions of the larger management

in Theory and reform in the European Union