, rationality, and radical progress, and was actively promoted, just as Basque, Breton, and other minority languages and dialects were actively discouraged. In the twentieth century, Breton suffered after the Second World War by being associated with the Vichy regime, whilst by the century's end it had moved from right to left to become associated with radical decentralised democracy and popular choice against centralised conservatism. 66
There is a tension between the effectiveness of habitual identity and the lure of novelty
contingent vein, Tokutomi imagines Japan’s prospects as shaped by colliding social forces (1989: 20–1, 167–82).
Several scenarios were possible for Japan as domestic conservatism stood in contradiction with compelling international impulses. Furthermore, within Japan
itself military and economic logics competed with each other and the outcome
looked unclear. So Tokutomi’s sociology was not merely a replica of Spencerian
evolutionism, but a more ambivalent account of a developmental pattern contingent on unpredictable contradictions. Optimistic about the future, but alert
Political Essays , ed. Max Pensky (Cambridge: Polity, 2001), 64. For further
discussion of the normative ambiguity of the nation state, see Daniel Chernilo,
A Social Theory of the Nation State: The Political Forms of Modernity Beyond
Methodological Nationalism (London: Routledge, 2007), esp. 156.
Jürgen Habermas, The New Conservatism: Cultural
Criticism and the Historians Debate , ed. Shierry Weber