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Light therapy and visual culture in Britain, c. 1890–1940

Soaking up the rays forges a new path for exploring Britain’s fickle love of the light by investigating the beginnings of light therapy in the country from c.1890-1940. Despite rapidly becoming a leading treatment for tuberculosis, rickets and other infections and skin diseases, light therapy was a contentious medical practice. Bodily exposure to light, whether for therapeutic or aesthetic ends, persists as a contested subject to this day: recommended to counter psoriasis and other skin conditions as well as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and depression; closely linked to notions of beauty, happiness and well-being, fuelling tourism to sunny locales abroad and the tanning industry at home; and yet with repeated health warnings that it is a dangerous carcinogen. By analysing archival photographs, illustrated medical texts, advertisements, lamps, and goggles and their visual representation of how light acted upon the body, Woloshyn assesses their complicated contribution to the founding of light therapy. Soaking up the rays will appeal to those intrigued by medicine’s visual culture, especially academics and students of the histories of art and visual culture, material cultures, medicine, science and technology, and popular culture.

Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

Chapter 2 questions British physicians’ conflicting perceptions towards sunburn (solar erythema) in the therapeutic process, as a physiological marker at once feared and desired during the cure. Both the visual sign of damage and therapeutic success, sunburn’s value was hotly contested amongst practitioners. This chapter tracks the ambivalent role of sunburn in the dosage standardisation of ultraviolet light through documentary photographs of c.1893-1940 that are particularly difficult to read, both literally and figuratively, beginning with a photograph of Finsen’s irradiated, sunburnt forearm - one of the earliest images, if not indeed the first, of ‘modern’ light therapy. British physicians and researchers came to convey enormous conceptual weight onto the visual production of sunburn, a phenomenon known to be visibly transient, latent and variable according to the individual, and thus a particularly uncooperative visual anchor on which to standardise exposures. The chapter argues that the very desire to ‘fix’ sunburn (to photographically record it for measurable qualitative and quantitative data), in spite of its variability, betrays deep-seated anxieties on the part of practitioners to wrestle control over light therapy as a purportedly ‘systematic’ and ‘modern’ form of medicine.

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

Scholars studying light therapy’s history pay surprisingly little attention to its specific – and contested – methods, practices, and theories, preferring instead to examine its popular public appeal. 56 I propose that one cannot fully appreciate the latter without in-depth knowledge of the former. Above all, the historic role of images and objects has not undergone serious and methodical study. To carry out that study I

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Soviet things that talk
Yulia Karpova

discussion concerning the position of professionals under state socialism and contest the dual image of them as either repressed, innocent intellectuals (a label usually applied to avant-garde artists)30 or as opportunistic collaborators with the regime.31 A number of recent studies provide a more balanced view, presenting professionals’ diverse strategies for navigating Soviet institutions and ideological guidelines, and creating spaces for debate and critique within the official culture.32 Likewise, I argue that Soviet artists, designers and critics could be dedicated to

in Comradely objects
Yulia Karpova

popularisation of feminine forms for denoting professions is still a highly contested subject in Russia. Smirnov, Khudozhnik o prirode veshchei, p. 129. ‘Industrial Design Definition History’, the official website of World Design Organi­ sation (formerly known as International Council of Societies of Industrial Design), http://wdo.org/about/definition/industrial-design-definition-history/ (acces­sed 6 June 2018). Ibid. Kushner, ‘Organizatory proizvodstva’; Tarabukin, Ot mol’berta k mashine. RGALI, f. 2943, op. 1, d. 2550, l. 10. A. Riabushin et al., ‘Tekhnicheskaia estetika I

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

Consumer Ideology ’, Art Journal , 41:1 (1981), 39–45; and Abigail Solomon-Godeau, ‘The Armed Vision Disarmed: Radical Formalism from Weapon to Style’, in Richard Bolton (ed.), The Contest of Meaning: Critical Histories in Photography ( Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 1992), pp. 86–110. 70 Maud Lavin, ‘Photomontage, Mass Culture, and

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest ( London and New York : Routledge, 1995), especially her discussion of the ‘Chlorinol’ advertisement, pp. 220–1. See also Rebecca Herzig, ‘ Removing Roots: “North American Hiroshima Maidens” and the X-Ray ’, Technology and Culture , 40 (1999), 723–45; Amina Mire, ‘ “Skin Trade”: Genealogy of Anti-Ageing “Whiteness Therapy

in Soaking up the rays