An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade], were only for the capitalist world. There was an order, which, in theory, combined Western democracy with a more-or-less regulated capitalism: the so-called liberal order – although perhaps ‘liberal’ isn’t the most precise term, either in political or economic terms. There were of course other characteristics. The promotion of human rights became one, for example, albeit selective. When South Korea was still under dictatorship, we would ask ‘What about South Korea? Shouldn’t it also be expected to respect human rights

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Oonagh McDonald

. The later stages of the existence of Lehman Brothers were dominated by Dick Fuld, one of the longest-serving chief executives on Wall Street. Fuld's dominance of the company, which he had built up and which he regarded as almost a personal possession, was one of the causes of its ultimate failure. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, setting up a small shop in Alabama, selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Their business soon evolved into cotton trading. Henry, the eldest brother

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

John P. Willerton and Geoffrey Cockerham

bilateral relations with FSU states. Moscow has used both military and trade arrangements to reassert its interests in Eurasia.1 Nationalism has continued to be widespread throughout the area of the FSU and it has further invigorated post-Soviet concerns over national autonomy.2 States once dominated by Moscow have pursued various bilateral and multilateral means to consolidate their sovereignty, lessen their economic and security dependence on Russia, and integrate into the mainstream global system. All of these states face the reality of geographical location and a

in Limiting institutions?
Paul Warde

years, from the late sixteenth century, the Dutch economy earned the highest per capita incomes in Europe and was the undisputed centre of the European carrying trade, industrial and technological progress, and a major processing centre for colonial goods (van Zanden 2000, 2004, Allen 2001, Ormrod 2003). Dutch growth promoted early forms of economic integration around the North Sea and the Baltic in a system of core-peripheral relations that pre-empts in many regards contemporary globalization (Wallerstein 1974, van Bochove 2008). Despite the relatively low level of

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
William Camden’s Annales
Ben Dew

, and as an oblique criticism of James’s statesmanship.12 The primary influence on Camden’s accounts of commerce and finance, however, was not James, but Burghley. This influence took a number of forms. At a very general level, by handing over a series of government records, Burghley shaped the type of history that Camden was able to write. And while the original batch of archival sources was later supplemented by further papers from Sir Robert Cotton, Camden essentially received more of the same kind of material. This, therefore, was a history written through

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
The Stamp Act Crisis
Peter D.G. Thomas

from merchants and manufacturers involved in the nascent cotton industry of Lancashire, for at this time cotton was grown only in the West Indies. Chancellor of the Exchequer Dowdeswell thought the advantage of duty-free cotton imports self-evident, and on 7 April witnesses told the House of Commons that Dominica as a free port could replace the Dutch island of St Eustatius as an international entrepôt for West Indies trade. But just when all seemed to be plain sailing, British West Indies merchants objected to this threat to their trade monopoly; and what rendered

in George III
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

economies continue to pose problems in the post-conflict phase. Reports from Angola illustrate this point with one researcher finding that W HETHER SEEN the management of the diamond industry retains many of the characteristics that it acquired during the periods when the diamond fields were both a prize and a weapon in the civil war: the control of the diamond fields and their populations by force of arms . . . and the domination of the Angolan diamond trade by secretive networks operating on the margins of the law, but ultimately to the benefit of political elites

in Building a peace economy?