This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.
A Crisis of Value
. The later stages of the existence of Lehman Brothers were dominated by Dick Fuld, one of the longest-serving chief executives on Wall Street. Fuld's dominance of the company, which he had built up and which he regarded as almost a personal possession, was one of the causes of its ultimate failure. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, setting up a small shop in Alabama, selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Their business soon evolved into cotton trading. Henry, the eldest brother
Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde
Rules governing trading in raw cotton, or which may be informally and tacitly prescribed, as with the moral economy of preindustrial capitalism as described by E. P. Thompson (1971) or Polanyi (1944) in his discussion of the emergence of a market in waged labour. Moreover, operative rules in particular markets are themselves subject to a process of development. They can be expected to change as the volume of exchange increases and as a market develops from narrow niches to serve wider groups of consumers. They can be expected to change when innovations shift the