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An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade], were only for the capitalist world. There was an order, which, in theory, combined Western democracy with a more-or-less regulated capitalism: the so-called liberal order – although perhaps ‘liberal’ isn’t the most precise term, either in political or economic terms. There were of course other characteristics. The promotion of human rights became one, for example, albeit selective. When South Korea was still under dictatorship, we would ask ‘What about South Korea? Shouldn’t it also be expected to respect human rights

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

bilateral relations with FSU states. Moscow has used both military and trade arrangements to reassert its interests in Eurasia.1 Nationalism has continued to be widespread throughout the area of the FSU and it has further invigorated post-Soviet concerns over national autonomy.2 States once dominated by Moscow have pursued various bilateral and multilateral means to consolidate their sovereignty, lessen their economic and security dependence on Russia, and integrate into the mainstream global system. All of these states face the reality of geographical location and a

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East

and society. The quarters of trading cities, peasant villages, tribes, and a mosaic of religious minorities were self-contained communities enjoying autonomy under their own leaders. The empire embraced Christians in the Balkans, Turks in Anatolia, and Arabs in the Fertile Crescent, Egypt, and North Africa. Ethnic nationalism was a foreign concept. While semi-independent territorial states sometimes emerged in the provinces when the imperial centre weakened, since the boundaries of such units fluctuated with the power of the time, there was

in The international politics of the Middle East
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace

economists argue, governments can often procure resources through trade (‘virtual water’ or buying water intensive products, such as cotton and oranges through international trade instead of producing it domestically). Additionally, technology has made it possible to develop substitutes for many materials (through desalinisation for fresh water), greater efficiency and conservation (Deudney, 1990: 470

in Redefining security in the Middle East

trade of diamonds, has been dubbed ‘toothless’ and is said to continue to exist ‘in name only’ (Elving 2012: 10–11; Harvey 2009: para. 4). Instead of the sanctions and embargoes against Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi that the final report of the UN Panel on Illegal Exploitation suggested imposing, the World Bank and the IMF granted Rwanda and Uganda debt-reduction benefits due to their good economic performances (UN Panel of Experts 2001: 38–9). The resource wars thesis has informed UN policy towards statebuilding, reflecting not only the vision of the DRC as failed but

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making