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demand. Two incidents in particular are highlighted: an epidemic in Coventry in 1957; and the death of the professional footballer Jeff Hall in 1959. The chapter ends with the introduction of oral poliomyelitis vaccine and the end to these long-running supply issues. As well as covering demand, the rhetoric around polio vaccine exposes other themes that we have already encountered in the 1950s and 1960s vaccination programmes. The general climate of demand was welcome, but the government was consistently worried about pockets of apathy shown by

in Vaccinating Britain
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. Since the late 1960s, Kennedy has written on medical definitions of death and mental illness, euthanasia, the doctor–patient relationship and the rights of AIDS patients. In line with the ‘hands-off’ approach of lawyers, Kennedy’s early work stressed that decisions should rest solely with the medical profession; but this stance changed after he encountered bioethics during a spell in the United States. In 1980 Kennedy used the prestigious BBC Reith Lectures to endorse the approach that he explicitly labelled ‘bioethics’, critiquing

in The making of British bioethics

of Joyeux, who gave us a great deal of trouble, desired me to write to his father that he had died the death of a hero and, when I pointed out “Nous ne sommes pas encore à ce point-là” was quite hurt. Him, I did manage to see again, being very noisy in another ward.’8 Another patient, who ‘was proud of his command of the English language, kept crying pathetically for hours:  “Seestair, seestair, elevate me – I cannot respire.” ’ Tayler explained to him that the nature of his wound meant that he must lie flat, but it took some time to convince him of this.9 Overwork

in Nurse Writers of the Great War

permanent base in Furnes, well behind the front-line trenches. From here, its drivers went out on nightly missions to rescue the wounded from the Battle of the Yser and the First Battle of Ypres.35 The author of A War Nurse’s Diary offers deliberately graphic descriptions of the war wounds she encountered while working with severely damaged patients in forward field dressing stations. She describes standing by ‘grievously stricken men it is impossible to help, to see the death-sweat gathering on young faces, to have no means of easing their last moments’, adding: ‘this is

in Nurse Writers of the Great War

the bombardment’ like the nurses in Antwerp described by Sarah Macnaughtan,28 she stands bewildered: Never for a second was there any fear of death, but an agonizing fear of the concussion, of a jaw torn off, of a nose smashed in … In that fearful moment, there was not one intellectual faculty I could call upon. There was nothing in past experience, nothing of will-power, of judgement, of intuition, that could serve me. I  was beyond and outside and apart from the accumulated experience of my lifetime. My intelligence was worthless in this moment of supreme need

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40

scale of the problem Māori health was indisputably poor around the turn of the twentieth century relative to the local Pakeha (non-Māori) population. New Zealand became a British colony in 1840 and this was followed by an exponential increase in the European population, as well as a fall in the Māori population. Census data show that Māori population had declined from approximately 56,000 in 1857 to 42,000 in 1896.6 There were no accurate data on births and deaths, since Māori were not required by law to register births and deaths until the 1912 Births and Deaths

in Colonial caring
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globe – as did the emergence of the WHO. 7 Thus, while routine vaccination continued until 1971 and ports were monitored for signs of importation, Britain's national protection was to come from international cooperation and a battle fought well away from its own shores. Before 1946 Smallpox was a deadly infectious disease which came in two forms. Variola major had a death rate of around 20 per cent, while the weaker variola minor had a death rate of around 1 per cent. All could lead to excessive scarring and complications in survivors. 8 While public health

in Vaccinating Britain
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books such as Easeful Death, she now claimed that it was ‘inhumane’ to deny people the right to die.8 She argued that this included not only terminally ill patients, but also individuals who felt they were a burden on their families due to disability or old age.9 When it came to assisted dying, Warnock argued, doctors had a pressing duty, ‘unless their religion forbids it’, to respect the autonomy of dying, elderly and disabled patients.10 In a 2008 column for the Observer, she stressed that ‘we have a moral obligation to take other people’s seriously reached

in The making of British bioethics
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In 1940, diphtheria became the first vaccine of the bacteriological age to be offered free to British children on a national scale. It achieved impressive results in its first years, reducing the case load from over 46,000 in 1940 to just 962 in 1950, and deaths from 2,480 to 49. 1 Medical authorities celebrated this success, but were mindful of the paradox they had created. With diphtheria no longer a common disease, would parents stop immunising their children? And if they did, would a disease that should be eliminated make a deadly

in Vaccinating Britain

to use skilful techniques of assessment and management in the face of the soldier’s stoicism to provide him with adequate pain relief. As part of the formation of skills to manage their combatant patients in war zones overseas, nurses developed the artistry of their practice from task orientation to a humanitarian service that healed men physically, socially and emotionally, in order to prepare them for return to the battlefield, or support them in death.5 As men were laid waste across the globe by the destructive forces of modern weaponry, military nurses were

in Negotiating nursing