interview Nendö people as part of their investigation into the Pacific Islands labour trade, which Goodenough considered a modern form of slavery. In an echo of the death of Captain James Cook almost one hundred years before, the men came under attack while fleeing the beach for the relative safety of the Pearl 's whaleboats, pursued by islanders who had long since grown wary of British intrusion. Diligently recorded by the Pearl 's surgeon, Adam Brunton Messer, the symptoms suffered by at least three of the wounded sailors were undoubtedly those of tetanus. Though the
In December 1811, Ernst Horn, a Professor at the Berlin Charité hospital was sued over the death of one of his patients. The twenty-one-year-old Louise Thiele had been hospitalised in August 1811 and diagnosed with hysteria. The doctor recommended the full variety of applications commonly prescribed at the time. Cold water baths were applied with doses of a hundred buckets of cold water. The patient was put in a rotating bed, an apparatus inspired by the English swing machine, restrained and rotated with a cadence of 120 times per minute
Cancer, modernity, and decline in fin-de-siècle Britain
In 1899, the Contemporary Review published an article by the English physician Woods Hutchinson (1862–1930) entitled ‘The cancer problem: or, treason in the republic of the body’.
In this article, thick with metaphorical allusions and polemic, Hutchinson condensed to thirteen pages the diverse and fraught anxieties that attended cancer in late nineteenth-century Britain. He wrote about how, over the past thirty years, the ‘deaths per thousand living from this malady’ had doubled in England
particularly evident in his formulation of the midlife crisis. Jaques had begun to think about the concept in 1952 – at the age of 35 – during a period of personal reflection on the challenges of midlife. When he first presented the paper to the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1957 it generated only a muted response, and it was not published in the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis until eight years later.
In the article, Jaques argued that during the middle years of life growing awareness of personal death
The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William
of the soul, the earth's entire history would be doomed to nothingness and become ‘a disappointing absurdity, more miserable and more senseless than the excrement of an earthworm’.
A later tale involves the discovery of a corpse in a pile of manure. Excrement is thus posited as a worthless by-product or is associated with death.
Beyond the elimination of excrement from their lives, the Martians are also explicitly free from decay or disease: ‘the heavy burdens of the earth and the suffering of
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human
only as long as the symptoms lasted. Its most famous failure was the death of Dr Etienne Jacottet on Mont Blanc in 1891, and ongoing scepticism about the usefulness of oxygen to climbers meant that Bert's hypothesis about the altitude-oxygen link was not established as fact until the beginning of the twentieth century.
One of the staunchest critics of the altitude sickness-oxygen link was Italian physiologist Angelo Mosso (1846–1910). Otherwise one of the leading scientists
was calling for more systematic and in-depth statistical inquiries to supplement the existing mortality statistics, the likes of which, including causes of death, had been collected in Finland since the 1740s. In fact, the Finnish and Swedish birth and mortality statistics are the oldest continuously collected population statistics in the world.
Gathered under the heading of ‘moral statistics’, the series of numbers representing crimes, suicide, and other forms of deviance consolidated a new way of regarding human
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown and Sally Shuttleworth
demonstrates, made around the world for other conditions such as fatigue, cancer, suicide, and general cultural or intellectual degeneration. Analogous concerns about the interaction between the environment and individual and social well-being also emerged in movements for self-improvement and self-care, public health and sanitation, and the ‘rescue’ and reform of the poor and disabled. These preoccupations influenced public policies, with numerous commissions and scientific inquiries into, for example, incidences of suicide and other causes of death amongst expanding urban
noted in Chapter 1, the NHS retained this exclusionary mentality so far as bed admission was concerned.
4 P. Jasen, ‘Breast cancer and the language of risk, 1750–1950’, Social History of Medicine , 15:1 (2002), 17–43, esp. pp. 21–35; A. Mackintosh, ‘The patent medicines industry in late Georgian England: a respectable alternative to both regular medicine and irregular practice’, Social History of Medicine , 30:1 (2017), 22–47, esp. 29–31. On the use and limitations of death certification for such assessments: A. Hardy, ‘“Death is the cure of
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s
example of the proliferation of chronic disease in men, it is women that articulate these voiceovers. Therefore, the visual accompaniments (shown in Figure 4.3 , Figure 4.4 , Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.6 ) are implied to be female bodies. This gender dichotomy is particularly noteworthy considering that the death rates from diseases such as coronary heart disease and diabetes were rising more quickly for men than women during the 1970s.
However, in visual terms women were 50 per cent more likely to be overweight