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brutal crimes. 47 According to one commentator, NATO was forced to act in order not to become complicit in the death of thousands. 48 Thus two salient features of reality were identified: firstly, the human rights’ violations and the resulting human suffering in Kosovo; and, secondly, the necessity of NATO military action as an immediate consequence of this suffering. This

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Virtuousness, virtuality and virtuosity in NATO’s representation of the Kosovo campaign

. Jean Baudrillard’s diagnosis of the Gulf War also applies to this latest expression of organised violence in contemporary politics. 2 This is not to deny that death and destruction defined the reality in Kosovo and Serbia in the first half of 1999. After all, NATO planes delivered large amounts of ordnance upon targets in this area, destroying both military and civilian infrastructure; killing civilians as well as soldiers. And

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
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Language games in the Kosovo war

conventionally called, ‘the West’. When war breaks out, this interpretative freedom may turn into a violence that may both breed new life and bring death. 2 From this perspective, we should start to ask how to conduct war under such foreign/international conditions? In this essay, I try to examine such interpretative freedom, the ‘magical’ and ‘fluid

in Mapping European security after Kosovo

nine million refugees fleeing to India), which led to the creation of Bangladesh; Vietnam’s overthrow of the heinous Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot in Cambodia (1979) (with up to two million civilian deaths mainly from disease and malnutrition in forced labour camps); and the overthrow of Amin’s odious regime in Uganda (with 300,000 citizens murdered by Amin’s thugs) by Tanzania (1979). Interestingly, all three intervening states did not justify their action on

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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to offend brutally the opinion of moral people in their own or other countries’. 2 The four interventions were successful in stopping the ‘effusion of blood’. They were not merely better than nothing (as in the case of Somalia today), too late (Rwanda) or leading to inordinate destruction, refugees and civilian deaths (Kosovo/Serbia). The insurgents themselves sought foreign armed intervention to save them. With the exception of the Cubans

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Constructing security in historical perspective

, est.) Infant mortality Literacy rate (deaths per 1,000 births, 2000, est.) Life expectancy (2000, est.) Literacy (% of total population) (1997) Egypt 3,000 63.33 63.33 51.4 a Israel 18,300   7.9 78.57 95 b     Jordan 3,500 21.11 77.36 86.6 a Lebanon 4,500 29.3   71.25 86.5   Syria 2,500 34.86 68.46 70.8   Notes : a 1995, estimated

in Redefining security in the Middle East

’s belief that specific endorsement by the Security Council of prescribed methods of action, involving especially the use of force, would eliminate attacks on his interpretation of ONUC’s mandate. 87 At the beginning of the session Hammarskjöld gave his reply to the Soviet Union, which had held him personally responsible for Lumumba’s death, demanded his dismissal from the post of the

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

earlier. Thirdly, USAmerican public opinion follows the commercial logic of the media, for which sex and violence (including death/war) are topics warranting by far the most intensive coverage. 38 This seems to be due to the commercial exploitation of fundamental fears and desires of the human condition; and due also to their strong contrast to the boring reproduction of everyday necessities and tightly

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
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) which, by the late 1990s, was gaining support within Kosovo and international attention, even if its military achievements against the FRY security forces were modest. 13 As the dispute became violent, it led increasingly to deaths, displacement of Albanians and destruction of property. Although some outside observers had become concerned about the growing tensions in Kosovo, the initially relatively low level of violence

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
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A European fin de siècle

direct sense of the word, that is, resulting in amputations. Likewise, it is hard to reconcile calls to abolish the death penalty (as the Council of Europe has urged of its member states) with the killing and punishing of innocent civilians for crimes committed by their leaders, which in effect was Europe’s stance during the course of NATO’s attacks. Even if one admits that the war in Kosovo had moral

in Mapping European security after Kosovo