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nine million refugees fleeing to India), which led to the creation of Bangladesh; Vietnam’s overthrow of the heinous Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot in Cambodia (1979) (with up to two million civilian deaths mainly from disease and malnutrition in forced labour camps); and the overthrow of Amin’s odious regime in Uganda (with 300,000 citizens murdered by Amin’s thugs) by Tanzania (1979). Interestingly, all three intervening states did not justify their action on

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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to offend brutally the opinion of moral people in their own or other countries’. 2 The four interventions were successful in stopping the ‘effusion of blood’. They were not merely better than nothing (as in the case of Somalia today), too late (Rwanda) or leading to inordinate destruction, refugees and civilian deaths (Kosovo/Serbia). The insurgents themselves sought foreign armed intervention to save them. With the exception of the Cubans

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Between humanitarianism and pragmatism

her husband’s death, became a correspondent in Russia of various US newspapers) and was a friend of General Skobelev (of central Asian fame and later head of the Russian army in the 1877–78 Russo-Ottoman War). Contrary to their lack of information regarding the Bulgarians, the Russian officials were aware of the upcoming Serbian and Montenegrin war against the Ottomans. St Petersburg instructed Kartsov, the Russian consul in Belgrade, to restrain them

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

French presence in the city. 57 His ‘justice was swift and harsh’. 58 He was able to re-established order prior to the arrival of the French troops, who landed on 16 August 1860; he assisted the Christians and arrested offenders, hundreds of whom were put to death or imprisoned following summary trials. Ahmed Pasha (a friend of Fuad) and some sixty Ottoman officials were hanged, while Khurshid and his officers were imprisoned. Fuad wanted to demonstrate

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

. His motley brigade saw no military action but his mere presence ‘electrified’ the Greeks 75 and acted as a ‘talisman’ 76 internationally. Byron, while in Messolonghi, displayed practical spirit and assisted the Greek cause both financially and organizationally. The Byron magic was to reach its apogee a hundred days later when he ‘died immortally’ 77 from illness (19 April 1824). His death assured the Greek cause thereafter of constant European concern, which was much needed in view

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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A bird’s eye view of intervention with emphasis on Britain, 1875–78

(BRCK). Levski organized a network of committees in the Bulgarian-inhabited regions, but was arrested by the Ottomans and hanged in Sofia in 1873, a major blow to the Bulgarian cause. Following his death the BRCK was split, with Karavelov opposed to an uprising and Botev advocating it. New figures came to the fore, such as Georgi Benkovsky, Stefan Stambulov (a future Bulgarian Prime Minister and regent) and Zakhari Stoyanov (the later historian of the April Uprising). The

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

the case with scholarly controversies, a fairer depiction is somewhere in the middle or is reached via another vantage point that makes the polar opposites less convincing. 62 Apparently, several of Hegel’s extreme statements were motivated by the German predicament of his time, characterized by fragmentation and lack of unity. 63 And it is worth noting that wars were then quite different, with fewer casualties than the battles and wars that were to follow Hegel’s death

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

, who embarked on anti-autonomy riots in Havana (January 1989), shouting ‘death to Blanco’ and blaming the US for Spain’s offer of autonomy. 73 Many peninsulares prayed for the annexation of Cuba by the US to save them from the insurgents. 74 At this juncture McKinley tried to purchase the island from Spain. In January Reid was charged to undertake private negotiations with Madrid to purchase Cuba but the mission failed. In March Woodford tried to convince Moret that

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

of morality and politics rather than law. 46 This overall trend continued even in the last decades of the nineteenth century. According to Henri Bonfils, one of the earliest French international lawyers, whose international law treatise ran into several editions after his death, 47 international law was the product of European and Christian principles and it applied only to the civilized nations of European origin. He shared J. S. Mill

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century