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The oddity of democracy
Rodney Barker

the demos there is a further paradox, a never-resolvable stress between the desire for solidarity and homogeneous identity, and a forever renewed resistance to the freezing stare of Medusa and an insistence that if the people are sovereign, then each one of them has an inalienable right to cultivate his or her own identity, and to resist either the inclusion or the exclusion which is an unavoidable feature of the bear hug of one great all-enveloping national character. The tensions and paradoxes of democratic identity are inherent and inescapable. And they are

in Cultivating political and public identity
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Universalism and the Jewish question
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

principle. It shows two faces to the world: an emancipatory face that looks to the inclusion of the other on the assumption that the other is a human being like ourselves, but also a repressive face that sees in the other a failure to pass some fundamental test of what is required for membership of humanity. Supporters and opponents of universalism both capture something real and important about the phenomenon itself. Supporters remind us of universalism

in Antisemitism and the left
Jürgen Habermas and the European left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

forms of nationalism the modern age is prone to generate. The key issue, as Habermas saw it, is that the Volksnation , the nation of the people, was a modern democratic invention which crystallised into ‘an efficient mechanism for repudiating everything regarded as foreign, for devaluing other nations, and for excluding national, ethnic, and religious minorities, especially the Jews. In Europe, nationalism became allied with antisemitism, with

in Antisemitism and the left
Jewish emancipation and the Jewish question
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

all human beings. Kant gave expression to a powerful logic of inclusion that enabled struggles for recognition to be waged by the excluded classes themselves and their allies. 20 Unsurprisingly, perhaps, the Enlightenment voices that were most critical of the Jewish question were also Jewish voices. 21 The Jewish philosopher, Moses Mendelssohn (1729–1786), a pivotal figure in the dissemination of Kant's philosophy, made a deep and passionate case for

in Antisemitism and the left
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

grandeur and, by its insulating spaces, made clear the relations between rulers and ruled, the boundaries between the palace of government and the streets of mere subjects. The spaces between buildings were as important as the spaces within them in setting out inclusion and exclusion, the identities of rulers and ruled ( figure 3 ). When, after the end of British rule, Le Corbusier and Jane Drew planned the government buildings for an independent and democratic India in Chandigarh, the state capital of the Indian Punjab, a quarter of a century after Lutyens, what they

in Cultivating political and public identity
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Uses and critiques of ‘civilisation’
Jeremy C.A. Smith

law presumed a European monopoly of civilisation in which quasi-​juridical criteria were crafted to determine inclusion of the so-​called civilised nations (Gong, 1984). As the standard subsided after the First World War, other constructions and appropriations of ‘civilisation’ emerged. Pro-​independence elites in Japan, Turkey, India, China and Indonesia confronted Western ideas, partly from their own civilisational vantage-​points and partly through critique of the intrinsic inconsistencies of the discourse of civilisations. Plural uses gained greater leverage in

in Debating civilisations
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The autonomous life?
Nazima Kadir

problem, such as the incident at the Vrankrijk, involving members of this community who make their own claims for inclusion, support and justice, upsets an underlying logic. It proves impossible for squatters to perform “backstage” as the articulate, assertive “front stage” activist who unwaveringly proclaims and acts on one’s ideals. The example points to a persistent contradiction between the two faces of squatting, and an unresolved problem in the heart of the squatters movement for the past forty years

in The autonomous life?