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The case of the Netherlands

to function had become still more complex. The forces with which the Dutch institute had had to contend in the 1980s and 1990s derived from global changes in industrial organisation and economic ideology, and a pressure to standardisation. Now, however, domestic politics were increasingly impacting on vaccine policy. Many authors have written of the growing involvement of ‘health care consumers’ in policy making, and of an erosion of trust

in The politics of vaccination
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914

(1904/5), particularly their encounters with enemy wounded and their part in the adoption of innovative triage procedures. Such events, while able to command the attention of the international medical community, were not necessarily recognised as ‘global’ in their outcomes or impact.11 As Charles Rosenberg demonstrated in his work on cholera in America, crisis functions as a sampling technique as well as a subject, creating a stimulus and contrast, and thus allowing an assessment of the reactions and social changes prompted by the event.12 However, despite describing

in Colonial caring
A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

A history of child development in Britain

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

12 The power of individuals and the dependency of nations in global eradication and immunisation campaigns William Muraskin At one time historians emphasised the ‘Great Man in History’ concept. That idea was later pushed aside by the realisation that larger, more important forces were at work. The individual's importance shrank as the role of massively expanded governments, multi

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)

‘international health’ (implying the cooperation of sovereign nations in tackling health problems) and its replacement by the concept of ‘global health’. Scholars differ in their interpretations of this trend. On the one hand, the political and legal scholar David Fidler underlines changes in the mechanical facts of pathogenic transmission, especially the rapidity with which dire infections (e.g. SARS, Avian flu, Ebola) spread from place to place

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)

MacKelvie is an unemployed leader, rushed to the hospital after a fall at a political rally. George Anderson is an international coal trader on the verge of bankruptcy as a victim of global economic turbulence. When George suffers abdominal pain and calls out the doctor in the night, he has to ‘confess’ that he cannot afford a nursing home, but must instead ‘trust himself to the tender mercies of a public charitable institution’. 1

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development

in autism as a phenomenon and supported the psychology of the ‘autistic spectrum’ as a way to understand social development. The emergence of the Internet in the early 1990s has also driven international collaborations between research groups, as well as parent groups and self-advocacy groups. This chapter explores how these changes have been associated with wider global changes relating to the

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

, 1946–1948’, in this volume. 40 This concept has been explored elsewhere, see:  H.  Sweet, ‘A mission to nurse:  the mission hospital’s role in the development of nursing in South Africa c. 1948–1975’, in D’Antonio et al., Routledge Handbook on the Global History of Nursing, pp. 198–217; Sweet, ‘Mission nursing in the South African context’. 41 Perhaps an extreme example of this is a retired American Lutheran missionary nurse, Nurse June Kjome, who was so profoundly affected by the injustices of South African Apartheid that she says she returned home a changed person

in Colonial caring

was quickly adopted in Sweden, beginning in 1801–2. 6 By this time, the public was more accepting, recognising the effectiveness of the vaccinations. Initially, anyone was free to administer them, but this changed after vocal criticism of unskilled vaccinators. After 1810, district physicians had to approve all vaccinators. The limited number of approved vaccinators was a problem for mass implementation, and the low vaccine coverage of the

in The politics of vaccination