Children’s rights in global context
The 1970s and 1980s had
brought important changes to the structure of children’s
rights in Britain that had repercussions around the world. At the
same time, Margaret Thatcher’s model of economic policy that
encouraged privatisation of public services and a reduction in
public spending, together with tax cuts
12 The power of individuals and the dependency of nations in
global eradication and immunisation campaigns
At one time historians emphasised the
‘Great Man in History’ concept. That idea was later pushed aside by
the realisation that larger, more important forces were at work. The
individual's importance shrank as the role of massively expanded governments,
This collaborative volume explores changing perceptions of health and disease in
the context of the burgeoning global modernities of the long nineteenth century.
During this period, popular and medical understandings of the mind and body were
challenged, modified, and reframed by the politics and structures of ‘modern
life’, understood in industrial, social, commercial, and technological terms.
Bringing together work by leading international scholars, this volume
demonstrates how a multiplicity of medical practices were organised around new
and evolving definitions of the modern self. The study offers varying and
culturally specific definitions of what constituted medical modernity for
practitioners around the world in this period. Chapters examine the ways in
which cancer, suicide, and social degeneration were seen as products of the
stresses and strains of ‘new’ ways of living in the nineteenth century, and
explore the legal, institutional, and intellectual changes that contributed to
both positive and negative understandings of modern medical practice. The volume
traces the ways in which physiological and psychological problems were being
constituted in relation to each other, and to their social contexts, and offers
new ways of contextualising the problems of modernity facing us in the
Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese
and new, local and global, rather than arriving as a fully fledged cultural export from the West. These widely popular pills were marketed in Chinese-language publications in Shanghai from at least 1913 to 1941, and from even earlier in the North China Herald , an English-language newspaper that was also based in the city. While these Shanghainese advertisements employed the cutting-edge strategies of representation of the time, this progressiveness belies other aspects of the Pink Pills story, most notably its sustained reputation as backwards and outdated in the
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown and Sally Shuttleworth
, moreover, increasingly problematic throughout his analysis, as it is deployed to establish national and racial hierarchies in the context of modernity and modernisation, and to affirm the superior status of American social and economic institutions globally. Beard's descriptions of the disease were, as David Schuster has noted, ‘rife with religious, racial, and regional assumptions’.
Those peoples Beard regarded as content to live in ignorance, indifferent to science or the mysteries of life, or who lived robust
, global health agencies (such as the WHO), and growing policy communities also help to explain similarities. 38 Yet the character of management in different countries also reflects differences in the structures, politics, and cultures of medicine across nation-states.
In the USA, for instance, multiple groups contributed to concerns about costs of healthcare in general, and chronic disease in particular. Hospitals, organised medicine, politicians, and federal and state government bodies were not the only actors in US health policy. Post
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the
nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji
largest and best funded non-biomedical tradition in South Asia, but also as a global therapeutic option available in each of the major continents.
Moreover, my window into this Ayurvedic modernity will be the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body.
In the interests of space, I have developed my account of Ayurvedic modernity through a discussion of the writings of one particular Ayurvedic author, Binodbihari Ray (1862–?). After a brief review of the extant literature on Asian medicines and modernity, I
Such pressures intensified into the 1970s. Industrial unrest, rising inflation, growing unemployment, and confused policy responses brought down the Conservative administration of 1970–74. 64 The incoming Labour government also had to cope with global economic turbulence, and the persistent mistrust of subsequent Labour administrations (1974–79) on the part of international capital markets resulted in a now infamous International Monetary Fund loan in 1976. 65 These political and economic circumstances provided fertile ground for the
of chronic disease control as a political and medical concern?
Managing medical professionals
To some extent, these are questions that scholars have previously sought to answer. One body of literature, for example, has cast the creation of systems for professional management as predominantly state-driven. 21 Here, the global economic crises of the 1970s are seen to have undermined the funding assumptions of welfare states the world over. 22 In Britain, state support for clinical guidelines and audit structures
range of anxieties about social, economic, political, and cultural decline.
While Rabinbach's account, focusing primarily on Continental Europe, barely mentions developments in Britain, for a number of British scientific writers and cultural commentators in the second half of the nineteenth century, energy and fatigue were central preoccupations. Particularly after 1870 – with Britain's dominant global status increasingly threatened by the rise of