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Bonnie Evans

Children’s rights in global context The 1970s and 1980s had brought important changes to the structure of children’s rights in Britain that had repercussions around the world. At the same time, Margaret Thatcher’s model of economic policy that encouraged privatisation of public services and a reduction in public spending, together with tax cuts

in The metamorphosis of autism
William Muraskin

12 The power of individuals and the dependency of nations in global eradication and immunisation campaigns William Muraskin At one time historians emphasised the ‘Great Man in History’ concept. That idea was later pushed aside by the realisation that larger, more important forces were at work. The individual's importance shrank as the role of massively expanded governments, multi

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Medicine and culture in the nineteenth century

This collaborative volume explores changing perceptions of health and disease in the context of the burgeoning global modernities of the long nineteenth century. During this period, popular and medical understandings of the mind and body were challenged, modified, and reframed by the politics and structures of ‘modern life’, understood in industrial, social, commercial, and technological terms. Bringing together work by leading international scholars, this volume demonstrates how a multiplicity of medical practices were organised around new and evolving definitions of the modern self. The study offers varying and culturally specific definitions of what constituted medical modernity for practitioners around the world in this period. Chapters examine the ways in which cancer, suicide, and social degeneration were seen as products of the stresses and strains of ‘new’ ways of living in the nineteenth century, and explore the legal, institutional, and intellectual changes that contributed to both positive and negative understandings of modern medical practice. The volume traces the ways in which physiological and psychological problems were being constituted in relation to each other, and to their social contexts, and offers new ways of contextualising the problems of modernity facing us in the twenty-first century.

Open Access (free)
Medicine, politics and the regulation of health in the twentieth century

Concepts of ‘balance’ have been central to modern politics, medicine and society. Yet, while many health, environmental and social challenges are discussed globally in terms of imbalances in biological, social and ecological systems, strategies for addressing modern excesses and deficiencies have focused almost exclusively on the agency of the individual. Balancing the Self explores the diverse ways in which balanced and unbalanced selfhoods have been subject to construction, intervention and challenge across the long twentieth century. Through original chapters on subjects as varied as obesity control, fatigue and the regulation of work, and the physiology of exploration in extreme conditions, the volume analyses how concepts of balance and rhetorics of empowerment and responsibility have historically been used for a variety of purposes, by a diversity of political and social agencies. Historicising present-day concerns, as well as uncovering the previously hidden interests of the past, this volume’s wide-ranging discussions of health governance, subjectivity and balance will be of interest to historians of medicine, sociologists, social policy analysts, and social and political historians alike.

Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese modernity
Alice Tsay

and new, local and global, rather than arriving as a fully fledged cultural export from the West. These widely popular pills were marketed in Chinese-language publications in Shanghai from at least 1913 to 1941, and from even earlier in the North China Herald , an English-language newspaper that was also based in the city. While these Shanghainese advertisements employed the cutting-edge strategies of representation of the time, this progressiveness belies other aspects of the Pink Pills story, most notably its sustained reputation as backwards and outdated in the

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
Balancing the self in the twentieth century
Mark Jackson and Martin D. Moore

Introduction Writing in the early 1990s, the prominent British historian Eric Hobsbawm labelled the twentieth century – or at least the period between 1914 and 1991 – ‘the age of extremes’. 1 Having witnessed a series of global economic disasters, ethnic cleansing, two world wars, the foundation and fall of the Soviet Union and the dismantling of pernicious empires – which were often replaced by insular and inequitable nation-states – Hobsbawm saw the twentieth century as

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown and Sally Shuttleworth

, moreover, increasingly problematic throughout his analysis, as it is deployed to establish national and racial hierarchies in the context of modernity and modernisation, and to affirm the superior status of American social and economic institutions globally. Beard's descriptions of the disease were, as David Schuster has noted, ‘rife with religious, racial, and regional assumptions’. 5 Those peoples Beard regarded as content to live in ignorance, indifferent to science or the mysteries of life, or who lived robust

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
Martin D. Moore

, global health agencies (such as the WHO), and growing policy communities also help to explain similarities. 38 Yet the character of management in different countries also reflects differences in the structures, politics, and cultures of medicine across nation-states. In the USA, for instance, multiple groups contributed to concerns about costs of healthcare in general, and chronic disease in particular. Hospitals, organised medicine, politicians, and federal and state government bodies were not the only actors in US health policy. Post

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji

largest and best funded non-biomedical tradition in South Asia, but also as a global therapeutic option available in each of the major continents. 12 Moreover, my window into this Ayurvedic modernity will be the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body. In the interests of space, I have developed my account of Ayurvedic modernity through a discussion of the writings of one particular Ayurvedic author, Binodbihari Ray (1862–?). After a brief review of the extant literature on Asian medicines and modernity, I

in Progress and pathology
Martin D. Moore

procedures. 63 Such pressures intensified into the 1970s. Industrial unrest, rising inflation, growing unemployment, and confused policy responses brought down the Conservative administration of 1970–74. 64 The incoming Labour government also had to cope with global economic turbulence, and the persistent mistrust of subsequent Labour administrations (1974–79) on the part of international capital markets resulted in a now infamous International Monetary Fund loan in 1976. 65 These political and economic circumstances provided fertile ground for the

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine