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Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations

democratic traditions. 1 However, the search for these means continues, and the democracy’s predicament in its fight against violence and terrorism continues to provide ample grist for the academic mills of numerous social scientists. 2 Intensive research in this field, particularly in recent decades, has spawned a number of theoretical designs. Two ideal types, the ‘war model’ and the ‘criminal justice model’, have gained notable prominence. Not surprisingly, we can easily apply these models to the general discussion of the various facets of the

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The parliamentary arena

astray from any democratic framework. In consequence, Western countries in the post-Second World War era became somewhat apprehensive of the party institution and tended to look upon these extremist parties as a substantial threat to democracy. 3 A review of the German Basic Law drafted in the wake of the war confirms this apprehensiveness over the potential threat of radical parties and the democracy’s efforts to defend itself in the face of this threat. Section 21 of the Basic Law (Political Parties) states: 1 The political parties shall

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Open Access (free)
Contested categories

. Before this image could be plausible, even intelligible, to a theologically sophisticated audience, however, Institoris and Sprenger had to define appropriate relationships between witchcraft and established conceptual fields. This problem was pressing because, as will be argued throughout, the authors’ conception of witchcraft was ultimately grounded in traditional beliefs and practices, neither of which had an inherent theological component. In order to construct a category of “witch” on the basis of such beliefs, theoreticians were obligated to make it compatible

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
Open Access (free)
The revolt of democratic Christianity and the rise of public opinion

a polity in direct contrast with that of absolutism. Allied with the monarch, French orthodox Catholicism – the state Church and staunch advocate of the divine-right-to-rule theory – had an interest in ensuring that the Huguenot representative polity was not allowed to corrupt the Gallican (French Catholic) Church or the noble parlements. That fear was not groundless paranoia. Although they were a minority and principally confined to the south, the Huguenots had from the beginning been implicitly political, and the result was the sixteenth-century Wars of Religion

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
An introduction to his life and work

Christian ruler, could choose disorder over order. The Peasants’ War gave the first indications that the danger posed by the Reformers’ teachings extended beyond religious practice. For Cochlaeus, as for other polemicists, it hardly mattered that the person they held responsible for the Reformation was not directly the instigator of the 1525 rebellion.32 Luther was widely depicted as the patron of disobedience, and his repudiation of the peasants’ insurrection seemed all the greater proof of his responsibility. And the horrific casualty figures of the Peasants’ War were only

in Luther’s lives

into the wars of religion (1562–98) which were to cripple it for virtually the remainder of the century. Additionally, the episcopate itself was burdened with several institutional abuses that made the implementation of reforms extremely difficult for even the most dedicated of prelates. In the first place, research has pointed to the geographical dislocation and economic difficulties caused by the wars of religion and to the resulting difficulties for bishops in fulfilling the functions of their office.6 In 1594, Cardinal de Joyeuse complained that two of the eight

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Open Access (free)
Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition

to ensure that some major figures of the Italian Enlightenment preferred not to deal directly with the subject of religion, opting instead to pursue enlightenment on safer ground.20 Enlightened thinkers such as the Verri brothers or Cesare Beccaria, editors of the journal Il Caffè 176 Italy: Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition (1764–66), avoided the subjects of religion and Church reform. Il Caffè was almost a mini-version of the famous French Encyclopèdie and gained some considerable fame abroad, on account of which the encyclopedists invited its

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)

shared with the councillors and their advisers, encouraged the inhabitants of the area to feel that non-legal methods were the most effective for combating the threat of witchcraft. Moreover, most of the Rothenburg witch-trials show that a wide spectrum of popular attitudes towards alleged witches existed: in each case some people expressed deep feelings of hostility and envy towards alleged witches, others simply laughed about them, while the middle-ground of popular feeling about alleged witches and how best to cope with them was characterised by pragmatism rather

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany

existed fairly widely but they were anachronisms. Their pervasive influence was on the wane and once the programme of state education was firmly established their demise would surely follow. Similar views were still being expressed after the Second World War. One commentator wrote in 1946 that although he was ‘delighted with the progress of popular education’, ignorance was still ‘in our rural areas, the great auxiliary of

in Witchcraft Continued
A case study in the construction of a myth

configuration. Leaving aside the various divisions in the debate over 81 The Enlightenment and religion the exact nature of the English Civil Wars, few if any historians doubt that the Puritan apostolic ideal of a presbyterian-style Church significantly informed not only religious debate in the those wars, but also important elements of political debate and action. Indeed deep divisions within the parliamentary camp were not a little to do with presbyterianism and its implicit egalitarian political model. Most commentators, however, have also asserted that Puritanism was

in The Enlightenment and religion